Wrote "On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres" which argued a heliocentric view of the universe
built instruments for observing the heavens and trained astronomers
provided mathematical backing for heliocentrism and showed that planets orbit the sun in elliptical orbits
Used a telescope to observe the sun, moon, and planets; was forced to appear at the Inquisition to defend his beliefs
Believed in inductive reasoning through observation and experimentation
Argued that mathematical and mechanical principles provided the key to understanding all of nature
In "Principia Mathematica," he explained his universal law of gravitation, that planets and moons move at uniform speeds proportional to their weight and distance from the sun
dissected human bodies to make advancements in anatomy
argued for constitutionalism by claiming that people were rational and capable of making their own decisions in government. Wrote "Two Treatises of Government" which criticized absolutism and justified the Glorious Revolution
Wrote "Leviathan" to show that people were basicall self-interested and greedy and needed a strong king to provide order, favored absolutism
Chief editor of the first "Encyclopedia", a multi-volume book about science, religion, industry and society
Wrote Wealth of Nations, a book that is considered the "bible of capitalism"
believed that the right kind of political order could make people truly moral and free, wrote "The Social Contract"
Explained the way the heart pumped blood that circulates throughout the human body
Enlightenment philosopher who criticized the Catholic church, believed in tolerance, and favored enlightened despotism
Believed that there should be checks and balances in government through creating three separate branches.
ruled Austria, maintained control over Austria during the War of Austian Succession
Wrote "On Crimes and Punishments," which argued against the use of torture
ruler of Austria who promoted religious tolerance and made many educational reforms
Using inductive and deductive reasoning to create a hypothesis, conduct an experiment, and draw conclusions
Those who want to end slavery
A person who believes in a higher power that created the universe, but who does not intervene in the daily lives of people
Rulers who tried to promote reform without giving up their own supreme power
Intellectual movement to apply reason to solve social problems
A group of scientists in England that was sponsored by the government to cooperate and share new ideas
Advocates a "hands off" approach from the government in matters involving the economy
French intellectuals committed to solving social problems through reason
Artistic movement that glorified nature, emotion, genius and imagination.
Informational gatherings sponsored by wealthy women that provided a forum for debate and new ideas
All political authority comes from the people, the people establish government to keep them safe