Chp 19 Enlightenment - Terms and Names

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Copernicus

Wrote "On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres" which argued a heliocentric view of the universe

Brahe

built instruments for observing the heavens and trained astronomers

Kepler

provided mathematical backing for heliocentrism and showed that planets orbit the sun in elliptical orbits

Galileo

Used a telescope to observe the sun, moon, and planets; was forced to appear at the Inquisition to defend his beliefs

Francis Bacon

Believed in inductive reasoning through observation and experimentation

Descartes

Argued that mathematical and mechanical principles provided the key to understanding all of nature

Newton

In "Principia Mathematica," he explained his universal law of gravitation, that planets and moons move at uniform speeds proportional to their weight and distance from the sun

Vesalius

dissected human bodies to make advancements in anatomy

Locke

argued for constitutionalism by claiming that people were rational and capable of making their own decisions in government. Wrote "Two Treatises of Government" which criticized absolutism and justified the Glorious Revolution

Hobbes

Wrote "Leviathan" to show that people were basicall self-interested and greedy and needed a strong king to provide order, favored absolutism

Diderot

Chief editor of the first "Encyclopedia", a multi-volume book about science, religion, industry and society

Adam Smith

Wrote Wealth of Nations, a book that is considered the "bible of capitalism"

Rousseau

believed that the right kind of political order could make people truly moral and free, wrote "The Social Contract"

William Harvey

Explained the way the heart pumped blood that circulates throughout the human body

Voltaire

Enlightenment philosopher who criticized the Catholic church, believed in tolerance, and favored enlightened despotism

Montesquieu

Believed that there should be checks and balances in government through creating three separate branches.

Maria Theresa

ruled Austria, maintained control over Austria during the War of Austian Succession

Beccaria

Wrote "On Crimes and Punishments," which argued against the use of torture

Joseph II

ruler of Austria who promoted religious tolerance and made many educational reforms

scientific method

Using inductive and deductive reasoning to create a hypothesis, conduct an experiment, and draw conclusions

abolitionists

Those who want to end slavery

deist

A person who believes in a higher power that created the universe, but who does not intervene in the daily lives of people

enlightened despots

Rulers who tried to promote reform without giving up their own supreme power

Enlightenment

Intellectual movement to apply reason to solve social problems

Royal Society

A group of scientists in England that was sponsored by the government to cooperate and share new ideas

Laissez-faire economics

Advocates a "hands off" approach from the government in matters involving the economy

philosophes

French intellectuals committed to solving social problems through reason

Romanticism

Artistic movement that glorified nature, emotion, genius and imagination.

salons

Informational gatherings sponsored by wealthy women that provided a forum for debate and new ideas

social contract

All political authority comes from the people, the people establish government to keep them safe

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