A set of laws or principles for a government
Articles of Confederation
Under the AOC who had all the power
Why did the Constitutional Convention meet
To revise the AOC -- ended up rewriting
New Jersey Plan
Small states wanted one house of Congress to have equal representation
Large states wanted two houses of Congress both based on population
Bicameral Congress with one house based on population, one with equal representation
# of Articles
# of Amendments
Bill of Rights
First Ten amendments
# of Branches
State and federal governments share power
Separation of Powers
Government is divided into 3 branches to avoid tyranny
Checks and Balances
Each branch of government has the power to block the power of the other branches
President's advisors -- There are 15
Introduction to the Constitution
Government may take your land for public use if they pay a fair price
18th power of Congress allows them to make laws to meet the changing needs of the nation
Supreme Court has the power to determine the constitutionality of the law
To accuse a government official of wrong-doing
An idea or proposal for a law
If the President vetoes a bill, goes back to the house it started in and needs 2/3 majority from both houses to become law
If bill passes Congress with simple majority, goes to President and he does not sign or veto and if within 10 days Congress adjourns, then bill cannot become a law, no override and president does not need to explain why
50% + 1
Simple majority needed to conduct business
What does Article I discuss?
What does Article II discuss?
What does Article III discuss?
What does Article IV discuss?
How states will work together
What does Article V discuss?
How to amend the Constitution
What does Article VI discuss?
Says Constitution is the Supreme Law of the Land
What does Article VII discuss?
Ratifying the Constitution
What is the main job of the Legislative Branch?
What is the main job of the Executive Branch?
Carry out/enforce laws
What is the main job of the Judicial Branch?
What are the qualifications to be a Senator?
30 years old, U.S. citizen for 9 years, live in state represent
What are the qualifications to be a Representative in the House?
25 years old, U.S. citizen for 7 years, live in state represent
Total number of Senators
Total number of Representatives in House
# of Senators representing IL
# of House representatives for IL
Presiding officer in the HOR
Speaker of the House -- John Boehner
Presiding officer in the Senate
Vice President -- Joe Biden
Who leads the Senate if the Vice President is absent?
President Pro Tempore -- Patrick Leahy
Term of office -- Senate
Term of office -- HOR
How are the elections in the Senate staggered?
1/3 every 2 yrs.
Who are the Senators for IL?
Mark Kirk and Dick Durbin
Count of the population every 10 years
Who has the sole power of impeachment?
House of Representatives
Who holds an impeachment trial?
When would we need the line of succession?
If there is a vacancy in the Presidency
What is the order of the line of succession
Vice President, Speaker of the House, President Pro Tempore, Secretary of State
Where must money bills start?
House of Representatives
What is the system by which we elect the President called?
How many electors are there in the electoral college?
How do they determine the number of electors each state gets?
# of Reps in House + # of Senators
Qualification for President/VP
35 years old, U.S. resident for at least 14 years, natural born citizen
How many terms may a president serve?
How many years is a president limited to?
What are the President's powers?
Veto, pardon, appoint ambassadors and judges, commander-in-chief, make treaties
How many electoral votes must a candidate win in order to win the presidency?
If there is no clear winner in the electoral college who picks the President?
House of Representatives
If there is no clear winner in the electoral college who picks the Vice President
How many levels are there to the Federal court system?
What are the three levels of the federal court system?
94 District Courts, 13 Circuit Courts of Appeals, 1 Supreme Court
How many Supreme Court Justices are there?
Who is the leader of the Supreme Court?
Chief Justice -- John Roberts
How long is the term of office for a Supreme Court Justice?
If a criminal escapes to a different state, the governor may ask for them to be returned
If accused of a crime, you have the right to be brought before a judge and told why you are being held
You cannot be tried for a crime twice if you were found innocent in the first trial
Ex Post Facto
You cannot be punished for something if it wasn't illegal when you committed it
A previous court ruling used as an example for future rulings
Needed to search private property (specific and signed by a judge)
Good reason needed to obtain a search warrant
A change or addition to the constitution
Checks by Legislative Branch on Executive Branch
Veto Override, approval of appointments and treaties, declare war, impeach
Checks by Legislative Branch on Judicial Branch
Impeach, amend laws, approve appointments, creates lower courts
Checks by Executive Branch on Legislative Branch
Commander-in-chief, veto, make treaties/appointments
Where did the Constitutional Convention meet?
Who was the President of the Constitutional Convention?
Checks by Executive Branch on Judicial Branch?
Pardon, appoints judges
Checks by Judicial Branch on Executive and Legislative Branch
What fraction of States or Congress is needed to propose an amendment?
What fraction of the states is needed to ratify an amendment?
Work against your nation or help your nation's enemies
The laws by which someone may become a U.S. citizen
Freedom of Religion, Expression, Petition, Assembly
Right to bear arms
No quartering of soldiers
Search and Seizure -- in order to search your property government must have probable cause and a search warrant
Right to due process, no self-incrimination, double jeopardy
Cannot take away life, liberty or property without a fair trial
Right to public/speedy trial, habeas corpus, council, confront witnesses
Right to jury trial
Right to bail, no cruel or unusual punishment
Constitution gives you certain rights, but those are not your only rights
Rights not given to the federal government belong to the people and the states
If you want to sue a state must first sue in that state
Electors will get 2 votes -- 1 for President 1 for Vice President
Due Process affirmed, Equal protection of the laws, defines citizenship (to include former slaves)
Cannot deny the right to vote based on race
Income tax (April 15)
Senators will no longer be chosen by state legislatures, instead by the people of the states themselves
Prohibition -- made it illegal to buy, sell, carry, distribute alcohol
Cannot deny the right to vote based on gender (women vote!)
Lame Duck -- shortened the period of time between presidential election and inauguration
Repealed 18th amendment
Limited number of Presidential terms to 2 or 10 years
Gave Washington DC right to vote in Presidential elections (same # of electors as least populous state --3)
No poll taxes
Line of Succession -- if there is a vacancy in the VP, President picks a new one with Congressional approval
Right to vote at 18 -- Vietnam Era
If Congress votes to give itself a raise, it will not go into place into the next session
Bill of Attainder
Allows government to punish citizens without a trial (illegal in U.S.)
According to Dec. of Independence, what is right of citizens under a tyrannical government?
Process by which someone becomes a citizen if not natural born
Journal each house keeps of its proceedings
Why is justice's term life?
So they aren't afraid to make unpopular or controversial decisions in order to be re-elected, instead they rule by what is fair and constitutional.
Why did the colonists want to be free from the British?
George III was tyrannical. Taxation without representation. Abused inalienable rights.
God-given rights at birth that cannot be given nor taken away. John Locke: Life, liberty and property. Jefferson: Life, liberty and pursuit of happiness.
# of Electors IL has in Electoral College
Leader of Armed Forces - President
Supported the ratification of the Constitution and strong national government
opposed strong national government