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Mort 160 Orientation to Funeral Service Exam #1 Flash Cards

FUNERAL SERVICE EDUCATION

Involves 3 components:

Formal college-level education

• Successful completion of state or national board exam

• Period of on-the-job training

DIPLOMA/CERTIFICATE

Certificate in Mortuary Science at Cypress College 50 semester units (NO LONGER OFFERED)

ASSOCIATE DEGREE

Usually equivalent to 60 semester units

Associates in Science - Mortuary Science at Cypress College = 75 Semester Units

BACCALAUREATE DEGREE

Usually equivalent to 120 semester units

Bachelor of Science in Funeral Service at University of Central Oklahoma 124 semester units

(Agencies, Conferences & Councils:)

DEVELOPMENT OF STATE BOARDS

• Most states have a state board of funeral directors and embalmers

• In California, DCA:CFB (Dept. of Consumer Affairs, Cemetery & Funeral Bureau)

Quality education is necessary for those entering funeral service - responsibility of Mortuary Science schools, the ICFSEB & ABFSE

(Agencies, Conferences & Councils:)

ABFSE

AMERICAN BOARD OF FUNERAL SERVICE EDUCATION

Accreditation
Curriculum oversight
Scholarship
National Board Exam Liaison

ONLY agency recognized by the U.S. Dept. of Education to accredit funeral service education - requires students to receive an education that includes:

Public Health/Technical
Business/Management
Legal/Ethics
Social Science

www.abfse.org

(Agencies, Conferences & Councils:)

ICFSEB

THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF FUNERAL SERVICE EXAMINING BOARDS

NOT-FOR-PROFIT voluntary association providing examination services; develops and administers the NATIONAL BOARD EXAM to provide state licensing boards & bureaus with national evaluation of applicant for licensure - develops, administers & provides score reporting to state licensure boards (used in 49 states except CA & District of Columbia)

www.theconferenceonline.org

(ABFSE College and University Council:)

UMSEA

UNIVERSITY MORTUARY SCIENCE EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION

Public schools of mortuary science

(ABFSE College and University Council:)

NACMS

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGES OF MORTUARY SCIENCE

Private schools of mortuary science

INTEREST GROUPS

NFDA - (LARGEST ASSOCIATION) www.nfda.org
National Funeral Directors Association

OGR - www.ogr.org
International Order of the Golden Rule

NSM (RENAMED SIFH) - www.selectedfuneralhomes.org
Selected Independent Funeral Homes

NFDMA - www.nfdma.com
National Funeral Directors & Morticians Association

JFDA - www.jfda.org
Jewish Funeral Directors of America

(Licensing laws: Increasing Educational Requirements:)

APPRENTICE/INTERN/RESIDENT TRAINEE

A person engaged in learning the practice of funeral directing and/or embalming under instruction,direction, or personal supervision of a duly licensed funeral director and/or embalmer

HS GRAD

(Licensing laws: Increasing Educational Requirements:)

EMBALMER

A person, properly licensed, who disinfects, preserves, or
restores a dead human body

HS GRAD
Mortuary College

(Licensing laws: Increasing Educational Requirements:)

FUNERAL DIRECTOR

A person properly licensed, engaged in, or conducting, or holding himself/herself out as being engaged in:

• preparing, other than by embalming, for the burial or disposition of dead human bodies; and/or
• maintaining or operating a funeral establishment for the preparation and disposition, or for the care of dead human bodies

AA/AS or Equivalent

Licensing laws: PUBLIC INTEREST/SCRUTINY of Licensed Professional

• Professionalism

• Continuing Education

(Funeral Service Associations:)

BACKGROUND

Divided into professional & trade

(Funeral Service Associations:)

OCCUPATIONAL ORGANIZATION

Major function is to create a definite and positive image of the occupation for its members and the public

(Funeral Service Associations:)

SOCIOCULTURAL MOVEMENTS

• The general public health movement - to examine and license those who disposed of the dead

• The Specific movement for cremation - wanted funeral reform

(19th Century Associational Developments:)

AMONG FUNERAL DIRECTORS

Development of strong local, state & national-level occupation groups

(19th Century Associational Developments:)

ORIGINS AND EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF OCCUPATION GROUPS

• Undertakers Mutual Protective Association of Philadelphia: established "black book" to register
objectionable & delinquent customers

• Chicago Undertakers Association: opened Illinois School of Embalming

ALLEN DURFEE: 1ST PRESIDENT of MFDA, ARRANGED 1st STATE CONVENTION

MICHIGAN FUNERAL DIRECTORS ASSOCIATION: protected professional practice by recognizing only legitimate undertakers

(19th Century Associational Developments:)

DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL FUNERAL DIRECTORS ASSOCIATION

Developed the body, name and relationship with manufacturers

(19th Century Associational Developments:)

PRESSURES INTERESTS AND MOTIVES

• Needed spokesman/representatives to transact business

• Uniform/standard practice

• Professionalism

(19th Century Associational Developments:)

CHARACTERISTICS OF EARLY LEADERSHIP

Well-to-do, well-educated middle-class men

(19th Century Associational Developments:)

CODE OF ETHICS

Needed for colleagueship/cohesion

(19th Century Associational Developments:)

COMMUNICATION WITHIN TRADE

• Drummers/salesman - first agents of communication

• Trade papers - articles on embalming, funerals, professionalism

• Trade magazines - formal medium of communication

(19th Century Associational Developments:)

GROWTH, PROBLEMS AND CHANGE

• Relationships with associations

• Transporting the dead

• Mortuary education

• Communication within occupation

(Traces of professionalism @ The turn of The Century:)

SOCIAL AND LEGAL PRESSURES

State licensing laws: lack of laws, no general definition of promotional practices, trade restraint

(Traces of professionalism @ The turn of The Century:)

ASSOCIATIONAL GROUPS

NFDA / National Funderal Directors Association: LARGEST funeral service association (www.nfda.org)

• NSM / Natonal Selected Morticians: now SELECTED INDEPENDANT FUNERAL HOMES (SIFH), develops sound business practices (www.sifh.org)

• State funeral directors associations (FDAs): represent practitioners in the field & advocate on their behalf (www.cafda.org)

OGR / Order of The Golden Rule: promotional & advertising services (www.ogr.org)

JFDA / Jewish Funeral Directors Association: promotes Jewish funeral practices (www.jfda.org)

• NFFS / National Foundation of Funeral Service: now FUNERAL SERVICE FOUNDATION (FSF); professional development (www.funeralservicefoundation.org)

• CMA / Casket Manufacturers Assocation: now CASKET & FUNERAL SUPPLY ASSOCIATION (CFSA), industry exhibits (www.cfsaa.org)

ASSOCATIONAL GROUPS cont'd

APFSP / Academy of Professional Funeral Service Practice: instituted the voluntary Certified Funeral Service Practitioner program (CFSP, www.apfsp.org)

CANA / Cremation Association of North America: international organization and recognized national authority for all information, education, products, services and support for cremation (www.cremationassociationwe.org)

ICCFA / International Cemetery, Cremation & Funeral Assocation: formerly known as American Cemetery Association (ACA), the only international trade association representing all segments of the cemetery, funeral service, cremation and memorialization profession (www.iccfa.com)

NFDMA / National Funeral Directors & Morticians Association: formerly known as Independent National Funeral Directors Association (INFDA); strictly African-American membership (www.nfdma.com)

EPSILON-NU-DELTA Mortuary Fraternity: A non-profit organization for members of the mortuary profession @ Worsham College of Mortuary Science, Chicago, Illinois (www.epsilonnudelta.org)

(Early Mortuary Behavior: Pagan Roots of Modern Funeral Practice:)

BASIC RIGHTS

• Constitute the core of any social institution
• Every man has a right to "life, liberty and the pursuit of
happiness"
• Equality before the law
• Common beliefs

(Early Mortuary Behavior: Pagan Roots of Modern Funeral Practice:)

COMMON BELIEFS

• Select their place of residence
• Their mates
• Their occupations
• Make the most of their own critical life decisions
• Common school education (at public expense)
• Right to a decent burial

(Early Mortuary Behavior: Pagan Roots of Modern Funeral Practice:)

IMPORTANCE OF LAWS, CUSTOMS, TRADITIONS, FASHIONS

Dead merit personal funeral services:
• Embalming
• Viewing
• Waiting period between death and disposition
• Casket
• Service
• Disposition - burial
• Services of the funeral director

American mortuary beliefs descends from humanitarianism

Early Christian Behavior

Early civilizations (Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Christian & Hebrew, Scandinavian)

(Early Mortuary Behavior: Pagan Roots of Modern Funeral Practice:)

COMPOSITION OF WESTERN CULTURE TODAY

• Greek aesthetics and philosophy
• Roman law and administrative genius
• Ancient Teutonic vigor
• Judeo-Christian tradition
• Hebrew religious and ethical concepts

(Medical Embalmers and The Rise of English Undertakers [1400s])

EMBALMING ENHANCED THE GROWTH OF MEDICAL SCIENCE

Discovery of the venous system:
• Leonardo da Vinci

Vascular Embalming:
• William Harvey

Injection Practices

(Early Mortuary Behavior: Role of The Barber-Surgeons:)

PRACTICE OF BLOODLETTING

Reducing the quantity of blood in the body

(Early Mortuary Behavior: Role of The Barber-Surgeons:)

PRACTICE OF EMBALMING

Reserved to the barber-surgeons (medical practitioners)

(Early Mortuary Behavior: Introduction of The Funeral Undertaker:)

FUNCTIONS

• Directed the funeral
• Provided the funeral merchandise

(Early Mortuary Behavior: Introduction of The Funeral Undertaker:)

LIMITATIONS

• Did not embalm
• Did not truly "direct" the funeral

(Early Mortuary Behavior:)

FEUDAL FUNERALS

• Broke (bankrupt) the estate
• Peak of ostentation

(Early Mortuary Behavior: Coffins and Funeral Goods:)

INTRODUCTION OF MANY CRAFTSMEN INTO FUNERAL UNDERTAKING

• Carpenters
• Cabinet Makers
• Livery Stable owners
• Furniture makers

(Early Mortuary Behavior:)

RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLERGY AND THE FUNERAL UNDERTAKER

• Clergy directed the funeral using the funeral director only to assist
• Opposed to ostentation and inequality in burials

(Early Mortuary Behavior: Burial and Sanitary Reform)

EDWIN CHADWICK AND THE POOR LAW COMMISSIONERS

Originated the process of death registration; based primarily on work investigating deplorable conditions of English cemetery workers

• Influence of Chadwick's report on intramural interments and burial practices: Recommended a medical officer certify death (Death Certificate) before burial (within calendar 8 days); believed municipal officer should be responsible for certifying all deaths and seeing to the proper disposal of the dead

(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's]:)

AMERICAN COLONIAL FUNERAL BEHAVIOR: ORIGIN OF CUSTOMS

English beliefs, institutions, skills, arts and crafts

(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's])

AMERICAN COLONIAL FUNERAL BEHAVIOR: FRAMEWORK FOR FUNERAL PRACTICES

Virginia Colony - primarily a commercial venture:
• Massachusetts Bay Colony - primarily religious

Rise of Protestantism - Puritans are a group of protestants:
• Hard work = avenue of salvation
• Theology and philosophy = sermons of hell-fire and damnation

(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's]:)

BURIAL PRACTICES - THE GRAVE AS FAMILIAR AS THE CRADLE

Models of simplicity and dignity in earliest New England - error to say prayers over the dead, sermons after the burial

Increase in social character of mourning - part of the English feudal funeral;
• Use of gifts - rings, scarves, gloves, books
• increased burden on colonial widow - social status

Funeral procession - the procession of vehicles from the place of the funeral to the place of disposition - on foot, with bearers carrying coffin on bier, pall

Social change in later colonial period - influence of revolutions - breakdown of Puritan controls

(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's]:)

EARLY AMERICAN FUNERAL DIRECTING: LIMITATIONS OF THE TERM "FUNERAL DIRECTING"

Began as part of other occupations; funeral directing in the modern sense was born in America during the 19th century
• Provisions of a set of tasks for the care and disposal of the dead
• A personal service which operates as a business enterprise

(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's]:)

EARLY AMERICAN FUNERAL DIRECTING: TRADESMAN UNDERTAKER

Furnished the funeral paraphernalia of mourning

Introduction of many craftsmen into the field of undertaking:
• Furniture maker
• Cabinet maker
• Carpenter

Importance increased as cities grew and material resources of the townspeople increased - livery, stable (joined furnishing undertaking)

(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's]:)

EARLY AMERICAN FUNERAL DIRECTING: EARLIER PERFORMERS OF THE PERSONAL SERVICE

• Nurses - family nurse prepared the dead for burial
• Midwives - shared with the nurse
• Specific layers out of the dead - specialty developed by the end of the 18th century

(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's]:)

EARLY AMERICAN FUNERAL DIRECTING: RELIGIOUS FUNCTIONARIES

Role of the church sexton (one who is in charge of the cemetery; the caretaker of a church; also racketeer):

• Tolling of the bell (indicated status, age, etc.) and digging of the grave
• Laying out the body
• Being in attendance
• Directing the procession
• Furnishing the merchandise

(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's]:)

EARLY AMERICAN FUNERAL DIRECTING: MUNICIPAL OFFICERS

• Inviter to funerals - called on those expected to attend (mostly men)
• Town undertakers - town health officials

(Rise of American Funeral Behavior [1600's]:)

EARLY AMERICAN FUNERAL DIRECTING: SPECIFIC UNDERTAKING PROCEDURES FROM DEATH TO BURIAL

Family called friend to arrange:
• Carpenter/cabinet-maker for coffin
• Coffin brought to house
• Body prepared, dressed, casketed

Farm wagon was hearse

(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

FIRST RESPONSE TO DEATH

Family reaction and behavior
• Unfiltered emotional release

Funeral mood of gloom
• Funeral mood of formality

(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

@ THE HOME: PROCEDURES IN THE CITIES

Most deaths occurred at home (typically before the age of 21)

The undertaker relieved the families of the responsibility of preparing the body

Preparation procedures
• Refrigeration
• Embalming (1st offered by medical practitioners returning from war)

(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

@ THE HOME: PROCEDURES IN RURAL AREAS

Usually no undertakers available

Preparation procedures:
• Washed, dressed, laid out in the parlor

Shared responsibilities:
• Relatives, neighbors and friends

(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

INFLUENCE OF THE INTRODUCTION OF EMBALMING

• If undertaker offered embalming, it was done at the home

• Portable cooling board was embalming table

(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

FUNERAL ARRANGEMENTS

Notification of relatives

Casket selection
• Use of catalogue
• Types available (wood/metal in city, wood in rural)
• Delivery problems

Other arrangements
• Death certificate, burial permit, cemetery permission

(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

THE FUNERAL: CITY

Role of the undertaker:
• Sent out invitations and newspaper notices

Locations for the funeral:
• Home of the deceased
• Church

Participants:
• Fraternal orders
• Clergy

Methods - undertaker directs (at instruction of clergy)

(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

THE FUNERAL: RURAL

Role of the undertaker (usually done by family)
• Limited

Locations
• Home

Participants
• Family

Methods - clergy directed

(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

THE FUNERAL PROCESSION AND BURIAL: FORMATION OF CORTEGE (FUNERAL PROCESSION)

• Clergymen
• Flower carriage
• Pallbearers
• Hearse (farm wagon)
• Immediate family and relatives
• Friends

(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

THE FUNERAL PROCESSION AND BURIAL: PROCEDURE @ GRAVESIDE

• Undertaker relinquished control to sexton
• Clergy lead family to grave
• Undertaker lead pallbearers
• Cemetery assistants filled grave after family left

(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

LATE 19TH CENTURY MOURNING SYMBOLS

Personal dress - black garments

Appearance of the home - door badges

Timetable of mourning behavior
Widow dressed in black for two years - life
Widower dressed in black for one year (gray the second year)

Stationery emblems for funeral participants
For widow - white or gray with black border (border size = mourning state)
• Colored crests (used black wax) and perfume prohibited

Social emblems for funeral participants
• Funeral sash, linen scarf, gloves, ribbons and bandages

Funeral music
• Church bells and brass band

(Pattern of Late 19th Century Funerals:)

ATTITUDE CHANGE FROM GLOOMY TO BEAUTY - PERSONAL DRESS

More aesthetic luxury in caskets

Introduction of the use of flowers (originally associated with pagan ritual)
• Design in floral funeral pieces - Wreath, cross, harp, star, heart
• Use of artificial flowers

(DCA:CFB)

Embalmer: Licensing Requirements

To be eligible for licensure as an embalmer (CA), you must meet the following requirements:

Be 18 or older

Committed no acts or crimes constituting grounds for denial of licensure under Section 480 of the Business and Professions Code

• Completed 2 year apprenticeship under a licensed embalmer in CA in a funeral establishment approved for apprentices by bureau

• Assisted in embalming no fewer than 100 human remains

Graduated from Mortuary Science program approved by bureau and accredited by ABFSE

• Pass NBE (National Board Exam) administered by the ICFSEB

(DCA:CFB)

Embalmer: Application Checklist

• Completed and signed your application; $150.00 application fee

• Requested "official transcripts" from the mortuary science program

• Requested "official certified copies" of NBE (sciences section) score from ICFSEB

• Included "Request for Live Scan Service" form / provided information about previously submitted fingerprints to DCA:CFB

(DCA:CFB)

Funeral Director: Licensing Requirements

To be eligible to apply for licensure as a funeral director (CA), you must meet the following requirements:

18 or older

Associate in Arts or Associate in Science degree, or equivalent.

• Have committed no acts or crimes constituting grounds for denial of licensure under Section 480 of the Business and Professions Code.

(DCA:CFB)

Funeral Director: Licensing Submittal

To apply for licensure as a funeral director, submit the following:

Completed application form + filing fee of $100

• May choose to submit licensing fee the same time as examination fee or wait until examination results have been received: $200.00 licensing fee

Official Transcripts sent directly from educational institution(s) to DCA:CFB

Copy of request for Live Scan service form verifying fingerprints have been scanned and all applicable fees paid

(DCA:CFB)

Apprentice Embalmer: Certificate of Registration

To be eligible for registration as an apprentice embalmer, you must meet the following requirements:

Be 18 or older

Be a high school graduate (or equivalent)

Committed no acts or crimes constituting grounds for denial of licensure under Section 480 of the Business and Professions Code.

• Provide one of the following:
(1) Proof showing completion of a high school course

(2) Evidence you have been licensed and have practiced as an embalmer for a minimum of 3 years within 7 years preceding application in any other state or country and that license has never been suspended or revoked for unethical conduct

(3) Graduation from a mortuary science program approved by bureau and accredited by ABFSE, or equivalent determined by bureau; furnished official transcripts from program

(DCA:CFB)

Apprentice Embalmer: Application Checklist

• Completed and signed application for submission and enclosed the $60.00 application fee

Managing funeral director and supervising embalmer signed application

• If applicable, requested "official transcripts" from high school attended

• Included "Request for Live Scan Service" form / provided information about previously submitted fingerprints to DCA:CFB

• Licensed funeral establishment has current "Approval to Train an Apprentice Embalmer" form on file

Video: The Facts of Death

• 2.2 Million people die each year; 86% of them have some type of funeral service

• Average funeral costs: $5000-7000 (same as childbirth)

• 23,000 Funeral homes and 45,500 funeral directors in the U.S.

• 84% of funeral homes are family owned; been in operation over 60 years

• 2/3 people entering profession have no family ties to business

• 99% of Americans over age 30 have been to a funeral; 1/2 of those responsible for making funeral arrangements

• 7 million Americans have their funerals pre-arranged; all over the age 55

• 6% cremated in 1973; 20% in 1993; 40% by 2013

• 100,000 cemeteries in the U.S.; 9000 still active

• 80% Americans choose earth burial; 60% now?

• Average 17 year old has seen 17,000 deaths in media but never attended funeral

Video: The Undertaking

• Lynch & Sons; largest family owned/operated funeral home; 11,000 square feet

• Most people have never viewed a cremation

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