World Regional Geography Exam 1
|Mental Maps||maps in our minds of places we have been and places we have merely heard of|
|three key perspectives|| historic/chronological - when?|
economic/political - how?
geographic/spatial - where?
|criteria of geographic realms|| Physical (Natural) and Human (social): similar natural and societal features|
Functional: a functional interaction between human societies and natural environments.
Historical: must represent the the most comprehensive definition of the great clusters of humankind (china/india)
|absolute location||exact location of a place on the earth described by global coordinates.|
|relative location||the regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places|
|geographic realms||The largest geographic units into which the inhabited world can be divided. monocentric and polycentric|
|hinterland||The market area surrounding an urban center, which that urban center serves|
|functional region|| An area organized around a node or focal point.,|
A ______ defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it.
|Pleistocene||Current epoch of the ice age, we have been experiencing it for nearly 2 million years. On average it is the coldest yet.|
|holocene||The geological era since the end of the Great Ice Age about 11,000 years ago.|
|weather vs. climate|| the condition of the atmoshpere at a particular location and time |
the term for weather conditions at a particular location over a long period of time
|4 major population clusters|| 1. East Asia|
2. South Asia
4. Eastern North America
|cultural landscape||the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape|
|language families||a group of languages related by descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family|
|how many language families and what are they|| There are 15 language families: Indo-european, afro-asiatic, niger-congo, saharan, sudanic, khoisan, uralic, altaic, sino-tibetan, japanese and korean, dravidian, austro-asiatic, austronesian, trans-new guinea and australian, amerindian.|
The most widely distributed family is the Indo-European
|European state model||a state consisting of a legally defined territory inhabited by a population governed from a capital city by a representative government.|
|A core-periphery world||global core, percent population, percent income, migrants, percent live in another country 28-29- Global core: Europe, North America, Japan, Australia. 15% of the world total population, 75% of the world's total income, Millions try to migrate from the periphery to the core, 3% live in a country other than the one they were born in.|
|globalization||The worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas|
|WTO||An international body established in 1995 to foster and bring order to international trade.|
|case of the Philippines||Globalization caused the Filipino corn farmers to be in competition with American and European corn farmers around the world and in their own country. American corn was cheaper as it is subsided by the US government putting the Filipino corn farmers out of work.|
|globalization- a threat?|| countries would loose their identity and culture|
constitutes Americanization, erodes local traditions, endangers moral standards, and menaces social fabric
|First Globalization revolution||during 19th and early 20th centuries when Europe's colonial expansion spread ideas, inventions, products, and habits around the world|
|Topical and Systematic fields of Geography||the list of fields includes cultural, economic, political, historical, medical, behavioral, environmental, and urban geography.|
|Cultural Pluralism||when small groups within a larger society maintain their uniquie cultural identity. Seeing value in all cultures.|
|Rain Shadow effect||Precipitation falls on the windward side of a mountain range, resulting in lush vegetation & a warm, moist climate on one side, but a desert area on the leeward side|
|Canadian Native Americans||First Nations|
|Included in the indegenous peoples of Canada||Metis, Inuit, and Cree peoples|
|Three zones of mineral resources||The Canadian Shield north of the Great Lakes, the Appalachian Mountains in the east, and the mountain ranges of the west.|
|Three leading oil-producing areas of the U.S.||Along and offshore of the Gulf Coast, Midcontinent district from west Texas to east Kansas, Alaska's north slope facing the Arctic Ocean|
|Canadian crescent of oilfields||southeastward from northern Alberta to southern Manitoba|
|Canada's tar sands||some of the largest deposits in the world also known as oil sands. They can be mined and processed to extract a heavy oil product in them known as bitumen.|
|three main-producing coal regions in US|| 1) Appalachia|
2) under Great Plains of US and Canada
3) southern Midwest
|Sunbelt||the popular name given to the southern tier of the United States, which is anchored by the mega-states of California, Texas, and Florida.|
|Six major migrations of the past century||1. North America has attracted a great amount of people who were rapidly assimilated into the societal mainstream and have sorted themselves out to maximize their proximity to evolving economic opportunities and have shown little resistance to relocating as these opportunities come up in different locations|
2. the persistent growth if metropolitan areas, first triggered by the late-nineteenth century Industrial Revolution's impact in North America
3. the large-scale movement of African-Americans from the rural South to the urban North during the height of the industrial era
4. the shift of tens of millions of urban residents from central cities to suburbs and subsequently to exurbs even farther away from the urban core
5. the return migration of millions of African Americans from the deindustrializing North back to the growing opportunities in the South in cities such as Atlanta and Charlotte
6. the strong and steady influx of immigrants from outside North America including, in recent times, Cubans, Mexicans, and other Latinos; South Asians from India and Pakistan; and East and Southeast Asians from Hong Kong, Vietnam, and the Philippines
|Estimated number of Illegal immigrants||about 12 million|
|push and pull factors||Factors encouraging people to move or attracting them to new regions|
|Bosnywash||the heavily populated area extending from Boston to Washington and including New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore.|
|Canada's Main Street||Most highly urbanized zone extending from Windsor through Toronto to Montreal and Quebec City|
|Eight metropolitan reions|| 1) Pacific Northwest|
6) Atlantic Seaboard
7) Main Street
8) Lower Great Lakes
|Suburban Downtowns||a concentration of major urban activities around a highly accessible suburban location, including retailing, light industry, and a variety of commercial operations|
|Religious regions||Baptist, Lutherans, Methodist, Mormons, Roman Catholicism|
|Primary, Secondary, tertiary, and quaternary activities||Primary: mining and farming; Secondary: manufacturing; Tertiary: Services; Quaternary: information|
|Silicon Valley||region of western California southeast of San Francisco known for its high-tech design and manufacturing industries|
|Nunavut|| the largest and newest territory of Canada, separated from the Northwest Territories in 1999.,|
"Our Land," in Inuktitut. A territorial subdivision of the Northwest Territories
|Three reasons in support for Quebec's succession|| 1. The implication of provincial laws that firmly established the use of French and the primacy of Quebecois culture|
2. A substantial and reassuring increase in the bilingual abilities of Quebec's Anglophone
3. The arrival of a new wave of immigrants-
|James Bay hydroelectric project||A massive scheme of dikes and dams that has transformed much of northwestern Quebec and generates electric power for a huge market within and outside and outside the province|
|Centrifugal forces||the forces that divide people and countries|
|Canada's leading high-technology complex||Southern Ontario's research-and-development complex around Waterloo and Guelph (university towns)|
|Five cross-border linkages||1. Atlantic Provinces with New England|
2. Quebec with New York State
3. Ontario with Michigan and adjacent mid-western states
4. Prairie provinces with Upper Midwest
5. British Columbia with the Pacific Northwest
Constitutes another set of potentially powerful devolutionary challenges confronting the Ottawa Govt.
|Long Lots||originatedfrom areas of French influence. You can find them in Quebec, Louisiana, and Texas. They are areas of land that were divided into narrow parcels that stretch back from rivers, roads or canals. New Orleans is a great ex.|
|What do the Acadians of New Brunswick promote?||Promote all efforts to keep Quebec within the Canadian federation|
|Represent the Old South||Appalachia and rural Mississippi|
|Southwest Region Identity||environmentally (with its steppes and deserts), and culturally (as Anglo, Hispanic, and Native American cultures all coexist here)|
|Largest Port||Port of South Louisiana/ Montreal|
|Third places||A term used in the concept of community building referring to the social area separate from the one of the workplace or home. The "first" place is the home and the "second" place is the workplace|
|3 Major models of North American cities||New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago|
|Major Geographic Qualities of North America||1. North America contains two of the world's largest territories (Canada--second-largest, United States--third-largest)|
2. Canada and the US are both federal states.
3. Canada and the US are both plural societies--Canada is bilingual and in the US there are divisions among ethnic, racial, and income lines.
4. A number of the French-speaking population of Quebec supports independence for the province.
5. North America's population is not large in international terms, but is one of the world's most urbanized and mobile populations.
6. North America has lots of high consumption and high income.
7. North America encompasses one of the world's largest manufacturing complexes.
8. Canada and the United States heavily depend on each other for supplies of critical raw materials.
9. North America is diverse because of continued immigration and high transitional mobility.
|Distribution of Natural Gas||The North American Realm leads the world in amount of production while Russia and Iran lead in amount of poven reserves.|
|Megacities||A metropolitan area with a total population of more than 10 million people|
|Symbolic spaces||Space transformed through spiritual or other abstract meanings related to the narrative.|
|Public Space||a kind of commons; a space intended to be open and accessible to anyone|
|Gentrification||the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)|
|Suburban Sprawl||The spreading of residency into the outlying regions of a city;unplanned development extending from cities|
|New Urbanism||an urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs|