double-layered membrane or serosa that surrounds the heart and roots of the great vessels.
the two arteries that branch from the base of the aorta and supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood.
Anterior interventricular artery
a branch of the left coronary artery, which supplies blood to the interventricular septum and anterior walls of both ventricles
chamber on the right side of the heart that receives oxygen depleted blood returning to the heart from the superior vena cava, the inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus.
chamber on the left side of the heart that receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins.
the main trunk of systemic arterial circulation that arises from the left ventricle of the heart.
vessel that leaves the right ventricle and routes blood to the lungs where gas exchange occurs.
Superior vena cava
major vessel that returns oxygen-depleted blood to the right atrium of the heart from body regions superior to the diaphragm.
Inferior vena cava
major vessel that returns oxygen-depleted blood to the right atrium of the heart from body areas below the diaphragm
a shallow depression in the interatrial septum that marks the spot where an opening, the foramen ovale, existed in the fetal heart.
an opening in the septum between the two atria of the heart that is normally present only in the fetus.
a vein which drains blood from the myocardium and routes it into the right atrium.
specialized myocardial cells in the wall of the right atrium that generate electrical impulses. The pacemaker of the heart.
inferiorly-located chamber on the right side of the heart that receives oxygen depleted blood from the right atrium and pumps it to the lungs.
inferiorly-located chamber on the left side of the heart that receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the systemic circulation via the aorta
a three cusp valve that separates the right atrium from the right ventricle. It prevents backflow of blood into the right atrium when the right ventricle contracts.
tendinous strings that extend from the cusps of the AV valves to the papillary muscles of the heart, thus preventing valve inversion
cone-like projections on the ventricular walls, to which the chordae tendineae are attached. The contraction of the papillary muscles and the tightening of the chordae tendineae prevent the valve flaps of the AV valves from turning inside out into the atria.
Pulmonary semilunar valves
valve situated between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery, which guards the base of the pulmonary trunk and prevents backflow of blood into the right ventricle.
coronary groove or sulcus of the heart which demarcates the borders of the underlying atria from the ventricles
the valve connecting the left atrium and the left ventricle of the heart. Of the four heart valves, it is the only one with two cusps instead of three. It is also called the bicuspid valve.
vessels which transport oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart.
a valve at the opening between the left ventricle and the aorta, preventing the backflow of blood into the left ventricle
specialized mass of conducting cells located at the atrioventricular junction in the heart.
period of the cardiac cycle when either the ventricles or the atria are relaxing
period when either the ventricles or the atria are contracting.
muscular ridges projecting from the walls of the ventricles of the heart.
prominent muscular ridges that run along the inner surface of the auricle and across the adjacent anterior atrial wall.
blood vessels that conduct blood away from the heart and into the circulation
blood vessels that return blood toward the heart from the circulation
Congestive heart failure (CHF)
condition in which the pumping efficiency of the heart is depressed so that circulation is inadequate to meet tissue needs
an elevation in diastolic or systolic blood pressure
Coronary artery disease (CAD)
results from narrowing of the coronary arteries over time because of atherosclerosis.
changes in the walls of large arteries consisting of lipid deposits on the artery walls; the early stage of arteriosclerosis
Myocardial infarction (MI)
condition characterized by dead tissue areas in the myocardium; caused by interruption of blood supply to the area
layer of the heart wall composed of cardiac muscle
sequence of events encompassing one complete contraction and relaxation of the atria and ventricles of the heart
The heart is composed of how many chambers?
The right side of the heart collects blood from ___________, and sends it to the____________.
This vein brings blood from the upper extremities, head, neck, and brain, and deposits it in the right atrium
Superior Vena Cava
This valve sits between the left atrium and the left ventricle_________. It is also known as _________.
1) Mitral valve
2) Bicuspid valve
The coronary arteries that supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood, originate off of this vessel _______, just on the far side of this valve_________.
Significant blockage of a coronary artery will result in reduced blood flow to, and eventual death of the cells of the heart. The result of this blockage is called a
Name three factors, within each person's control, that greatly affect the long-term health of your heart. ____________ , _____________ , ____________
The healthy adult heart normally beats approximately how many times each minute?
72 times a minute
Which side of the heart generates the greatest force to move blood?
This waxy, fat-like substance is found in the body and may contribute to heart disease by sticking to the walls of arteries
These vessels carry blood away from the heart ______________, while these vessels ______________carry blood toward the heart.
This is the name of a group of specialized cells, located within the wall of the right atrium, which initiates the human heart beat._____________