chamber on the left side of the heart that receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins.

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Pericardium

double-layered membrane or serosa that surrounds the heart and roots of the great vessels.

Coronary arteries

the two arteries that branch from the base of the aorta and supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood.

Anterior interventricular artery

a branch of the left coronary artery, which supplies blood to the interventricular septum and anterior walls of both ventricles

Right atrium

chamber on the right side of the heart that receives oxygen depleted blood returning to the heart from the superior vena cava, the inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus.

Left atrium

chamber on the left side of the heart that receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins.

6. Aorta

the main trunk of systemic arterial circulation that arises from the left ventricle of the heart.

Pulmonary trunk

vessel that leaves the right ventricle and routes blood to the lungs where gas exchange occurs.

Superior vena cava

major vessel that returns oxygen-depleted blood to the right atrium of the heart from body regions superior to the diaphragm.

Inferior vena cava

major vessel that returns oxygen-depleted blood to the right atrium of the heart from body areas below the diaphragm

Fossa ovalis

a shallow depression in the interatrial septum that marks the spot where an opening, the foramen ovale, existed in the fetal heart.

Foramen ovale

an opening in the septum between the two atria of the heart that is normally present only in the fetus.

Coronary sinus

a vein which drains blood from the myocardium and routes it into the right atrium.

SA node

specialized myocardial cells in the wall of the right atrium that generate electrical impulses. The pacemaker of the heart.

Right ventricle

inferiorly-located chamber on the right side of the heart that receives oxygen depleted blood from the right atrium and pumps it to the lungs.

Left ventricle

inferiorly-located chamber on the left side of the heart that receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the systemic circulation via the aorta

Tricuspid valve

a three cusp valve that separates the right atrium from the right ventricle. It prevents backflow of blood into the right atrium when the right ventricle contracts.

Chordae tendineae

tendinous strings that extend from the cusps of the AV valves to the papillary muscles of the heart, thus preventing valve inversion

Papillary muscles

cone-like projections on the ventricular walls, to which the chordae tendineae are attached. The contraction of the papillary muscles and the tightening of the chordae tendineae prevent the valve flaps of the AV valves from turning inside out into the atria.

Pulmonary semilunar valves

valve situated between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery, which guards the base of the pulmonary trunk and prevents backflow of blood into the right ventricle.

Atrioventricular groove

coronary groove or sulcus of the heart which demarcates the borders of the underlying atria from the ventricles

Mitral valve

the valve connecting the left atrium and the left ventricle of the heart. Of the four heart valves, it is the only one with two cusps instead of three. It is also called the bicuspid valve.

Pulmonary vein

vessels which transport oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart.

Aortic valve

a valve at the opening between the left ventricle and the aorta, preventing the backflow of blood into the left ventricle

AV node

specialized mass of conducting cells located at the atrioventricular junction in the heart.

Diastole

period of the cardiac cycle when either the ventricles or the atria are relaxing

Systole

period when either the ventricles or the atria are contracting.

Trabeculae carneae

muscular ridges projecting from the walls of the ventricles of the heart.

Pectinate muscles

prominent muscular ridges that run along the inner surface of the auricle and across the adjacent anterior atrial wall.

Arteries

blood vessels that conduct blood away from the heart and into the circulation

Veins

blood vessels that return blood toward the heart from the circulation

Congestive heart failure (CHF)

condition in which the pumping efficiency of the heart is depressed so that circulation is inadequate to meet tissue needs

Hypertension

an elevation in diastolic or systolic blood pressure

Coronary artery disease (CAD)

results from narrowing of the coronary arteries over time because of atherosclerosis.

Atherosclerosis

changes in the walls of large arteries consisting of lipid deposits on the artery walls; the early stage of arteriosclerosis

Myocardial infarction (MI)

condition characterized by dead tissue areas in the myocardium; caused by interruption of blood supply to the area

Myocardium

layer of the heart wall composed of cardiac muscle

Cardiac cycle

sequence of events encompassing one complete contraction and relaxation of the atria and ventricles of the heart

The heart is composed of how many chambers?

4 chambers

The right side of the heart collects blood from ___________, and sends it to the____________.

1) Body
2)Lungs

This vein brings blood from the upper extremities, head, neck, and brain, and deposits it in the right atrium

Superior Vena Cava

This valve sits between the left atrium and the left ventricle_________. It is also known as _________.

1) Mitral valve
2) Bicuspid valve

The coronary arteries that supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood, originate off of this vessel _______, just on the far side of this valve_________.

1)Aorta
2)Aortic

Significant blockage of a coronary artery will result in reduced blood flow to, and eventual death of the cells of the heart. The result of this blockage is called a

Heart Attack

Name three factors, within each person's control, that greatly affect the long-term health of your heart. ____________ , _____________ , ____________

1)Diet
2)Exercise
3)Smoking

The healthy adult heart normally beats approximately how many times each minute?

72 times a minute

Which side of the heart generates the greatest force to move blood?

Left side

This waxy, fat-like substance is found in the body and may contribute to heart disease by sticking to the walls of arteries

Cholesterol

These vessels carry blood away from the heart ______________, while these vessels ______________carry blood toward the heart.

1)arteries
2)veins

This is the name of a group of specialized cells, located within the wall of the right atrium, which initiates the human heart beat._____________

SA node

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