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In large doses, alcohol is a ________; in small amounts, it is a ________.

depressant; depressant

Which of the following is not a stimulant?

alcohol

University men were shown an erotic movie clip. Compared with those who thought they had recently consumed a nonalcoholic beverage, men who believed they had recently consumed an alcoholic beverage were:

more likely to report having strong sexual fantasies and less likely to report having feelings of guilt.

Roberto is moderately intoxicated by alcohol. Which of the following changes in his behavior is likely to occur?

If angered, he is more likely to become aggressive than when he is sober,
He will be less self-conscious about his behavior.
If sexually aroused, he will be less inhibited about engaging in sexual activity

Amphetamines are to ________ as barbiturates are to ________.

stimulants; depressants

Which drugs are most likely to be prescribed as tranquilizers?

barbiturates

Which of the following statements concerning near-death experiences is true?

They typically consist of fantastic, mystical imagery.

The experience of vivid geometric images and dreamlike scenes is most likely to be triggered by:

LSD.

Dreams often involve sudden emotional reactions and surprising changes in scene. This best serves to support the theory that dreams:

are triggered by random bursts of neural activity.

Which of the following is not a theory of dreaming mentioned in the text?

Dreaming is an attempt to escape from social stimulation.

Which of the following statements regarding REM sleep is true?

REM sleep deprivation results in a REM rebound.

Concluding her presentation on contemporary theories of why sleep is necessary, Marilynn makes all of the following points except:

Slow-wave sleep provides a "psychic safety valve" for stressful waking experiences

Smokers with ________ levels of nicotine tolerance are likely to suffer the most severe withdrawal symptoms when they discontinue smoking.

high

The change in brain chemistry that offsets repeated usage of a psychoactive drug is called:

neuroadaptation.

The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is an indication of:

tolerance

Dan has recently begun using an addictive, euphoria-producing drug. Which of the following will probably occur if he repeatedly uses this drug?

The dosage needed to produce the desired effect will increase.

Research on the use of addictive drugs indicates that:

many people are able to stop using addictive drugs without professional help.

Which of the following statements concerning alcoholism is not true?

Adopted individuals are more susceptible to alcoholism if they had an adoptive parent with alcoholism

The lowest rates of drug use among high school seniors is reported by

African-Americans.

Psychoactive drugs affect behavior and perception through:

alteration of neural activity in the brain.

Alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memory by:

decreasing REM sleep.

How a particular psychoactive drug affects a person depends on:

1.

the situation in which the drug is taken.





2.

the dosage and form in which the drug is taken.





3.

the user's expectations and personality.

The use of barbiturates ________ anxiety and ________ sympathetic nervous system activity.

decreases; decreases

Repeated use of an opiate:

decreases the brain's production of endorphins.

The experience of vivid geometric images and dreamlike scenes is most likely to be triggered by:

LSD

After ingesting a small dose of a psychoactive drug, Laqueta experienced vivid visual hallucinations and felt as if she were separated from her own body. Laqueta most likely experienced the effects of:

LSD

REM rebound involves the:

tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation.

The activation-synthesis theory provides a physiological explanation for:

dreaming.

Which theory suggests that dreams are mental responses to random bursts of neural stimulation?

activation-synthesis theory

Research indicates that the percentage of total sleep spent in REM sleep is higher in ________ than in ________.

infants; adults

The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is an indication of:

TOLERANCE

As drug users experience neuroadaptation, they demonstrate signs of:

tolerance.

Dan has recently begun using an addictive, euphoria-producing drug. Which of the following will probably occur if he repeatedly uses this drug?

The dosage needed to produce the desired effect will increase.

The experience of physical pain following discontinued use of a psychoactive drug best illustrates:

withdrawal.

Sixteen-year-old Bethany is becoming increasingly concerned about her use of marijuana on weekends. In order to reduce her use of this drug Bethany should:

stop associating with friends who use marijuana.

Which of the following statements concerning alcoholism is not true?

Adopted individuals are more susceptible to alcoholism if they had an adoptive parent with alcoholism

The greatest danger of viewing drug addiction as a disease is that this may lead drug addicts to:

feel powerless to overcome the addiction.

Girls with a history of physical abuse are at ________ risk for drug addiction. Those with a history of eating disorders are at risk for ________ drug addiction.

increased; increased

Alcohol has the most profound effect on:

the transfer of experiences to long-term memory.

Alcohol consumption tends to:

decrease self-awareness and decrease feelings of guilt.

Alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memory by:

decreasing REM sleep.

Hallucinations similar to those that accompany the near-death experience can be produced by:

oxygen deprivation.

People who heard unusual phrases prior to sleep were awakened each time they began REM sleep. The fact that they remembered less the next morning provides support for the ________ theory of dreaming.

information-processing

Which theory suggests that dreams are mental responses to random bursts of neural stimulation?

activation-synthesis theory

Chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods are called ________ drugs.

psychoactive

All of the following are common misconceptions about addiction, except the statement that:

biological factors place some individuals at increased risk for addiction.

After a stressful day at the office, Arthur has five or six drinks at a local bar before going home for dinner. Research suggests that Arthur's heavy drinking will have the most adverse effect on his ability to remember:

the next day the names of the people he talked to and what he said while drinking.

Which of the following is a psychedelic drug?

LSD

The best indication that dreaming serves a necessary biological function is provided by the fact that:

most mammals experience REM rebound.

Which of the following was not cited in the text as evidence that heredity influences alcohol use?

Children whose parents abuse alcohol have a lower tolerance for multiple alcoholic drinks taken over a short period of time.

Bed-wetting is most likely to occur at the end of ________ sleep.

slow wave

At 1:00 A.M., Luis gets out of bed and begins to sleepwalk. An EEG of his brain activity is most likely to indicate the presence of:

delta waves.

The large, slow brain waves associated with Stage 4 sleep are called:

delta waves.

American sixth graders ________ their friends' use of marijuana and American college students ________ their fellow students' enthusiasm for alcohol.

overestimate; overestimate

Sleep deprivation has been shown to:

diminish immunity to disease.

Research studies of the effectiveness of hypnosis as a form of therapy have demonstrated that:

posthypnotic suggestions have helped alleviate headaches, asthma, and stress-related skin disorders.

Narcolepsy is a disorder involving:

periodic uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness.

Selective attention is most accurately defined as

the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus.

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