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What does the principle of complementarity of structure and function mean?
Function reflects structure and structure determines function.
All structures perform the same functions.
Functions are determined by environmental conditions, not by structure.
The age of the structure determines the function it performs.

Function reflects structure and structure determines function.

The function of a cell/organ/organism depends on its structure. The structure of a cell/organ/organism determines its function.

Which of the following best defines anatomy?
It is the study of tissues.
It is the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another.
It is the study of all chemical reactions that occur within body cells.
It is the study of how the body parts work and carry out their life-sustaining activities.

It is the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another.

Anatomy is the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another.

Which of the following is NOT one of the subdivisions of anatomy?
renal anatomy
systemic anatomy
gross anatomy
developmental anatomy

renal anatomy

The term renal anatomy refers to the structure of the kidney, but is not a subdivision in the broad field of anatomy.

Which of the following best demonstrates the principle of complementarity of structure and function?
The liver, the brain, blood vessels, and stomach are each responsible for a necessary activity that no other organ can perform.
Atoms, the tiny building blocks of matter, combine to form molecules such as water and proteins.
Bones can support and protect body organs because they contain hard mineral deposits.
The heart and blood vessels circulate blood continuously to carry oxygen and nutrients to all body cells.

Bones can support and protect body organs because they contain hard mineral deposits.

The principle of the complementarity of structure and function states that what a structure can do depends on its specific form. For example, bones can support and protect body organs because they contain hard mineral deposits.

Which of the following is the simplest level of structural organization in the human body?
chemical
cellular
organismal
tissue

chemical

The simplest level of the structural hierarchy is the chemical level; chemicals (molecules) can be combined to form the structures of a cell.

Which numbered image in the figure organization corresponding to a protein molecule?

1
2
3
4

2

A protein molecule is formed from the combination of many atoms.

What is represented by the image labeled number 7 in the figure?

the cardiovascular system
the human organism
the nervous system
the muscular system
blood tissue

the cardiovascular system

The organs shown in image 7 (heart and blood vessels) make up a specific collection of organs known as the cardiovascular system.

What level of structural organization is represented by the image numbered 5 in the figure?
tissue
organ
cell
organelle

tissue

Image 5 illustrates a type of tissue (in this case, muscle) consisting of a group of cells that work collectively to achieve a certain function.

Which of the following is NOT an example of the level of structural organization represented by the image numbered 6?
smooth muscle
stomach
blood vessel
skin

smooth muscle

Image 6 corresponds to the organ level of structural organization. Smooth muscle is a type of tissue and is shown in image 5.

Which of the following is represented by the rectangular shape that forms the outer boundary of the figure?


respiratory system
integumentary system
skeletal system
muscular system

integumentary system

The integumentary system forms the external body covering and includes skin, hair, and nails.

Which organ systems function as control systems, communicating with other cells/organs to regulate their activities?
cardiovascular and digestive systems
nervous and cardiovascular systems
cardiovascular and endocrine systems
nervous and endocrine systems

nervous and endocrine systems

Communication within the body is essential for homeostasis. Communication is accomplished chiefly by the nervous and endocrine systems, the body's control systems.

Which level of structural organization is considered to be the highest level?
cellular
organismal
organ
chemical

The highest level of organization is the organism, the living human being, Thus, the organismal level represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us alive.

Which of the following is NOT an example of maintaining boundaries?
The human body as a whole is enclosed and protected by the integumentary system.
Each cell in our body is surrounded by a selectively permeable membrane.
Single-celled organisms possess a limiting membrane that encloses its contents and lets in needed substances while restricting entry of potentially damaging or unnecessary substances.
When your hand is exposed to extreme heat, you involuntarily pull your hand away from the painful stimulus.

When your hand is exposed to extreme heat, you involuntarily pull your hand away from the painful stimulus.

Responsiveness (or excitability) is one of the necessary life functions, but is not an example of maintaining boundaries.

Which numbered arrow in the figure represents the net movement of nitrogenous wastes and excess ions?


1
2
3
4
5

4

Excess nitrogenous waste and excess ions are removed from the blood and eliminated from the body by the excretory system.

Which numbered arrow represents the net movement of carbon dioxide?


3
4
1
2

2

Carbon dioxide (CO2), a byproduct of cellular respiration, is transported by the cardiovascular system and eliminated from the body by the respiratory system.

Which materials are exchanged between blood and cells, as depicted by the set of arrows labeled 5 in the above figure?


carbon dioxide
nutrients
waste products
oxygen
all of the listed responses are correct

all of the listed responses are correct


The set of arrows labeled 5 represent both the essential materials required for cellular metabolism (nutrients and oxygen) and the waste products generated as a byproduct of cellular metabolism (including organic molecules and carbon dioxide).

Which life process in the body sustains all others?
metabolism
responsiveness
reproduction
movement

metabolism

Our cells are chemical factories. Chemical reactions (metabolism) are essential for cells to function and, thus, for the body as a whole to maintain boundaries, move, respond, digest, excrete, grow, and reproduce--all necessary life functions.

Which of the following represents the correct order in which the components interact in a homeostatic control system?
the receptor, the stimulus, and the effector
the effector, the stimulus, and the receptor
the variable, the receptor, and the set point
the receptor, the control center, and the effector

the receptor, the control center, and the effector

Regardless of the factor or event being regulated-the variable-all homeostatic control mechanisms are processes involving at least three components that work together. The first component, the receptor, is a sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes by signaling (providing input to) the control center. The control center compares the input to the set point, which is the level or range at which a variable is to be maintained, and signals the appropriate effector(s). The effector produces the effect (change) that counteracts the initial problem (stimulus).

The regulation of body temperature is an example of which type of homeostatic control?
homeostatic imbalance
positive feedback
negative feedback
hormonal control

negative feedback

Most homeostatic control mechanisms are negative feedback mechanisms. In these systems, the output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or reduces its intensity. Your body "thermostat" operates in this fashion.

If the figure were used to represent a heating system in a home, which of the following would be most directly associated with the structure labeled B?


cooling of air
burning of fuel
thermometer reading
thermostat setting

thermostat setting

The structure represented by B is the control center of the homeostatic control system. In a home heating system, the control center stores the thermostat temperature setting and determines the appropriate response to deviations in the home temperature compared to that setting.

The arrow between the letters A and B in the figure represents ______.


an afferent pathway
a response
an efferent pathway
a stimulus

an afferent pathway

Sensory input flows along afferent pathways.

If the figure were used to represent the regulation of body temperature, the structures represented by the letter C would include ______.


parts of the nervous system
temperature sensors in the brain
hot and cold sensors in the skin
sweat glands

sweat glands

Effectors in the homeostatic control of body temperature include sweat glands and skeletal muscles.

In a homeostatic control mechanism, which component monitors the environment?
receptor
stimulus
effector
control center

receptor

Homeostasis refers to maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continuously. Receptors monitor changes occurring both inside and outside the body and send this information (called input) to control centers for processing.

Which of the following is true of negative feedback mechanisms?
They are used for processes such as blood clotting and labor contractions.
The effect or response enhances the original stimulus.
The variable deviates farther and farther from its normal range.
The effect opposes the original stimulus or reduces its intensity.

The effect opposes the original stimulus or reduces its intensity.
Most homeostatic control mechanisms are negative feedback mechanisms. In these systems, the effect opposes (counteracts) the original stimulus or reduces its intensity.

Which of the following is the proper description of the human body in the anatomical position?
The body is erect with feet slightly apart, and palms face forward with thumbs pointing away from the body.
The body is erect with feet slightly apart and arms extending perpendicular to the torso along a straight line with the clavicle.
The body is erect with feet together, palms facing backward and the thumbs pointing toward the body.
The body is erect with feet together, and palms facing the thighs with thumbs pointing forward.

The body is erect with feet slightly apart, and palms face forward with thumbs pointing away from the body.

In the anatomical position, the body is erect with feet slightly apart and arms at the sides. This position is easy to remember because it resembles "standing at attention," except that the palms face forward and the thumbs point away from the body.

Which of the following statements is correct?
The heart is dorsal to the sternum.
The sternum is posterior to the spine.
The sternum is dorsal to the spine.
The heart is posterior to the spine.

The heart is dorsal to the sternum.

The heart is dorsal (posterior) to the sternum. In humans, the terms dorsal and posterior are synonymous with one another, meaning "toward or at the back of the body," or behind.

Which of the following organs is least likely to be damaged in an automobile accident?
stomach
intestines
urinary bladder
liver

urinary bladder

The urinary bladder is very well protected in the pelvic cavity by the two hip bones.

Pericarditis is a disorder in which pain is experienced in the_________.
thoracic cavity
abdominal cavity
pelvic cavity
abdominopelvic cavity

thoracic cavity

Pericarditis is an infection or inflammation of the connective-tissue covering surrounding the heart. The thoracic cavity contains the heart and lungs.

What section of the human body is presented in the figure?


lateral
sagittal
coronal
transverse

sagittal
A sagittal section divides the body into left and right parts.

The ventral cavity includes which of the indicated subdivisions in the figure?


D and E
C, D, and E
A and B
C and D

C, D, and E
The ventral cavity includes the thoracic (C) and abdominopelvic cavities (D and E).

The mediastinum is ______.


a subdivision of the cavity indicated by the letter C
the structure that separates the cavities indicated by the letters C and D
the term for the cavity formed by the combination of subdivisions indicated by the letters D and E
the structure that connects cavities A and B

a subdivision of the cavity indicated by the letter C
The mediastinum is a cavity contained within the thoracic cavity.

The hand is ________ to the shoulder.
distal
superior
medial
proximal

distal

In anatomical position, the hand is distal to the shoulder. This means that the hand is further from the trunk of the body compared to the shoulder.

Which specific body cavity houses the heart and lungs?
thoracic
abdominopelvic
pericardial
dorsal

thoracic

The thoracic cavity contains the pericardial and pleural cavities, which in turn house the heart and lungs, respectively.

What is the role of the serous membranes covering some organs?
to provide passage of nutrients for the organ tissues
to serve as extra tissue for blood flow to the organ
to provide a protective outer covering for the organ
to prevent friction between the organ and body cavity wall

to prevent friction between the organ and body cavity wall

The two serous membrane layers are separated by a cavity containing serous fluid. This fluid allows organs to slide without friction across the cavity walls and one another as they carry out their routine functions.

The regional term used to identify the thigh is ________.
popliteal
femoral
crural
coxal

femoral
Femoral refers to the thigh. The thigh bone is called the femur.

Which directional term is used to describe the relationship of the skin relative to the skeletal muscles?
superficial
deep
lateral
medial

superficial

The skin covers the outside of the body, thus, it is superficial, or external, to the skeletal muscles.

Which of the following statements is correct?
The chin is caudal to the umbilicus.
The umbilicus is caudal to the chin.
The umbilicus is superior to the chin.
The umbilicus is medial to the chin.

The umbilicus is caudal to the chin.

The terms caudal and inferior are synonymous, meaning "away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below." The umbilicus is caudal (inferior) to the chin.

Which of the following is the regional term that includes the head?
axial
appendicular
superior
coronal

axial

The axial part of the body, which makes up the main axis of our body, includes the head, neck, and trunk.

Which of the following can be described as a cut made diagonally between the horizontal and the vertical planes?
cross section
transverse section
oblique section
sagittal section

oblique section

An oblique section is a cut made diagonally between the horizontal and the vertical planes.

The dorsal body cavity is divided into which of the following subdivisions?
the vertebral/spinal, cranial, and pleural cavities
the vertebral/spinal and cranial cavities
the thoracic, pleural, and abdominopelvic cavities
the vertebral/spinal and thoracic cavities

the vertebral/spinal and cranial cavities

The dorsal body cavity, which protects the fragile nervous system organs, has two subdivisions: the cranial cavity and the vertebral, or spinal, cavity.

What is the function of serous fluid?
It enables organs, such as the heart and the stomach, to slide across cavity walls and each other without friction.
It prevents the organs from drying out when in contact with air.
It helps the stomach and other organs maintain neutral buoyancy within body cavities, even during fluctuations in atmospheric pressure, or when gases, such as oxygen or methane, are present in varying ratios.
It aids in the repair of damaged organs.

It enables organs, such as the heart and the stomach, to slide across cavity walls and each other without friction.

The slippery serous fluid allows the organs to slide without friction across the cavity walls and one another as they carry out their routine functions. This freedom of movement is especially important for mobile organs, such as the pumping heart and the churning stomach.

Embryology is a subdivision of physiology that deals with developmental changes that occur before birth.
True
False

False

Embryology is a subdivision of developmental anatomy that deals with developmental changes that occur before birth.

Digestion includes breaking substances into their simpler building blocks, synthesizing more complex cellular structures from simpler substances, and using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP.
True
False

False

This is the definition of metabolism (not digestion). Metabolism is a broad term that includes all chemical reactions that occur within body cells. It includes breaking substances into their simpler building blocks (e.g., breaking down glycogen into molecules of glucose), synthesizing more complex cellular structures from simpler substances (e.g., building a protein from amino acids), and using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP. Digestion is the breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.

The knee is proximal to the thigh.
True
False

False

Proximal means closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk. Distal means farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk. In this case, because the thigh is closer to the body trunk than the knee, the knee is distal (not proximal) to the thigh.

The sagittal plane is a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts.
True
False

True

The sagittal plane is a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts.

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