roman catholic church officials, made up 1% of the population
rich nobles, made up 2% of population
composed of two groups, the bourgeoisie and the workers of France's cities, made up 98% of population
merchants and artisans (new wealth)
King Louis XVI
absolute monarch of France at the start of the French Revolution. After yielding power to the revolutionary National Assembly, he was overthrown when the French Republic was declared and then executed, along with his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette, during the Reign of Terror.
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
an assembly of representatives from all three states to get approval for the tax reform
a french congress established representatives of the Third Estate on July 14, 1789 to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
Tennis Court Oath
pledge made by members of France's National Assembly in which they vowed to continue meeting until a new constitution was drawn up
July 14, 1789
The Storming of the Bastille, people thought the king was hiding troops in the prison so they stormed it and tore it down
A wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789
there was a tax on bread and the peasants couldn't afford it so they go to Marie Antoinette and she supposedly tells them "let them eat cake"
Declaration of the Rights of Man
statement reflecting the enlightenment stating that men were born and remain free and equal in rights... the aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural rights of man
rights of man
liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression
stripped the king of some powers
had the power to create laws and to approve or prevent any war the king declared on other nations
sat on the left side of the meeting hall, wanted more sweeping changes, hated the king and wanted to set up a republic, believed commoners should have full power
parisian wage earners and small shop keepers
sat in the center of the hall and wanted some changes in government, but not as many as the radicals.
sat on the right og the meeting hall, opposed more chamges in governent, trusted the king, and upheld the idea of limited monarchy
French nobles who fled from France during the peasant uprisings
group that wanted to remove the king and establish a republic
Jean Paul Marat
published a radical journal called Friend of the People
rev. leader who was devoted to the rights of Paris' poor people
1. women weren't given a right to vote 2. reduced Louis XVI's role from king to common citizen & prisoner, 3. tried Louis for treason and found him guilty
a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
composed of Great Britain, Holland, and Spain joined with Prussia and Austria
member of the jacobins but didnt dress like a revolutionary, nickname was the Incorruptable, extremist in support of the radical ideas, wanted to build a Republic of Virtue
Republic of Virtue
set out on this, tried to wipe out every trace of France's past monarchy and nobility
Reign of Terror
reign of the jacobins who set out to crush , thousands killed at the guillotine
composed of 5 men, were all moderates not revolutionary idealists, despite corruption gave the troubled country a period of order
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
vote of the people, French supported Napoleon
Britain persuaded Russia, Austria, Sweden to join against France
English admiral who defeated the French fleets of Napoleon but was mortally wounded at Trafalgar (1758-1805)
coup d' etat
a sudden seizure of power, or "blow of he state"
government run public schools
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property
Battle of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.
forcible closing of ports
The War of 1812
A war between the United States and Britain the resulted because of capturing naval vessels and Native Americans problems blamed on Britain.
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
members of an irregular military force, the spanish peasant fighters
a conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleon's French troops out of Spain. killed 300,000 french
burning grain fields and slaughtering livestock so as to leave nothing that the enemy could eat
King Louis XVIII
the king who assumed the throne once napoleon was exciled to elba. unpopular among subjects, especially peasants
Napoleon's final battle and he lost; the English and the Persians defeated him.
brief period when Napoleon made his last bid for power
Klemens von Metternich
This was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression
Balance of power
no one country has more power than the other
agreeing that as many as possible of the rulers whom Napoleon had driven from their thrones should be restored to power
a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the congress of Vienna
Concert of Europe
agreement that nations would help each other out in case if revolution occurred