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Nursing Assistant Book Chp. 5 Infection Control

Infection

The invasion of disease-causing organism in body.

Microorganisms - Germs - Microbes

Tiny living things

Pathogens

Bacteria or viruses, cause disease.

Bacteria

Single cell, some beneficial to humans while others cause disease.

Fungi

Single or multi cell, Plant cause disease.

Virus

Smallest known infection agent.

Protozoa

Single cell, animal, live in water, cause disease.

Staph

Bacteria, common cause of infection

Strep

Bacteria, common cause of chest/throat infection

Food

Bacteria can grow well on remains of food left in patient area

Moisture

Bacteria grow well here.

Aerobic

Require oxygen to live

Light

Bacterias worst enemy

Darkness

Favors bacteria, grows rapidly.

Saprophytes

Bacteria live on dead matter

Parasites

Bacteria live on living matter

Infectious

Disease that can spread

Chain of infection

Infectious disease is transmitted and developes in persons body

Causative Agent

Pathogen that causes infection/disease

Reservior of Agent

Pathogen lives and reproduce

Portal of Exit

Pathogens leave resevior(body secretions)

Route of Transmission

Pathogen is transmitted from the reservior to new hosts body

Portal of Entry

Pathogens enter the body

Susceptible Host

Individual who harbors pathogens

Carrier

Person with disease but, shows no signs

Fomite

Object that is contaminated with pathogens

Contact Transmission

Transfer of microorganisms by contact with body surfaces

Droplet Transmission

Transfer of microorganisms by droplets propelled through air

Airborne Transmission

Transfer of microorganisms by evaporated droplets in air

Nosocomial Infection

Infection acquired in health care facility

Communicable

Refers to disease that can spread through people

Medical Asepsis - Clean Technique

Practices to maintain a clean environment

Sterile

Free from all microorganisms

Clean

Refer to object/area not contaminated by pathogens

Contaminated

Not clean

Dirty

Refer to object/area has been contaminated

Sharps

Needles, scalpels, razor blades.

Exposure

Unprotected contact with pathogens

Barrier

PPE: prevent contact with body fluids

Disinfection

Use chemical substance to kill most microorganisms

Sterilization

Killing all microorganisms including spores.

Terminal Cleaning

Cleaning of patient room after discharged.

Isolation

Specific procedures to prevent patient from infecting others

Standard Precautions

Guidelines applying to care of all patients

Transmission Based Precautions

Isolation procedures for patients with contagious disease

Flora

Microorganisms normally present in human body

Anaerobic

Can survive without oxygen

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