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Psychology

Combination of philosophy and biology
It is becoming more of a biology

Six major concepts

1.biological perspective
2.cognitive perspective
3.behavioral perspective
4.whole person perspective
5.developmental perspective
6.cultural perspective

Biological perspective

Chemical
Neuroscience
Rely on imaging through use of magnets to measure blood flow.

Cognitive perspective

Thought
Memory, reasoning
Compare brain to a computer
All memory is based on associations
The more emotional you are the moe you will remember

Innate

Genetic
Language

Behavioral perspective

Skinner believed that everything is learned
Skinner thought that you needed to find out what motivates someone for doing it
Skinner thought we didn't have free will

Whole person perspective

Psyco dynamic
Humanistic approach

Psycho dynamic

Freud
Most of humankind is guided by unconscience
Related to an iceberg
Early childhood has a big influence on you
Brought everything back to sex

Humanistic approach

Started in the 60s
Looked at the good in people
Everyone has something to offer
Carl Rogers
Maslow
Foundation on positive and free will

Developmental perspective

Means change
Heredity and environmental influence

Cultural perspective

Culture gender ethics
Most affective

Photographic memory

Study in Russia on subject (S) by dr. Loire
Remember everything
Could not block the noise and cannot shut it off
In the autistic spectrum

Senastesia

See music
Feel colors
Those with this condition that are not on the autistic spectrum are normally autistic

Objective

Computer

At what age are we thought not to be able to remember past

3

Processing of information

Encode
Storage
Retrieval

The human brain is limitless or limited

Limitless

Where a memories stored

In the cerebral cortex in different places.
What sets us apart from others one the food chain

Reptilian

Limbic system
Emotions

Two forms or attention

Selective
Divided

Selective

When you focus one something and don't hear things around you

Divided

All over the place and you don't hear things around you

Sensory

Things around you

Working system

Short term

Long term

Forever memories

Episodic memory

Highly emotional flash back
Flash bulb memory

Normal stress

Need stess

Distress

To high

Ustress

Good stress

Does our brain shut off

No

Memory practice

Chunking
Rehearsing

Strongest memory senses

Smell
Sound

Context dependent

Same spot where you learned something

Mood dependent

Most congruent
You remember things that happened in a specific mood when in that mood
Take them back to happy place in order to bring people to a happy mood

The literal meaning of the word psychology is the

Study on the mind

Dr. Jones is industrial/ organizational (I/O) psychologist Thus, she is most likely to do what?

Help companies develop questions to ask job candidates

One major difference between psychology ad psychiatry is

Medical specialty

Psychology is different from pseudoscience because of

It's method if using the scientific method ti test theories and hypothesis

Psychology and anthropology are classified as scientific because if their

Methods

The term hypothesis literally means

Little theory

A subject who is exposed to the study treatment is said to be in the _____________ condition

Experimental

If I performed a study in the 1980s, and you wanted to see if my findings are still current in 2008, you could simply ______________ my study today

Replicate

Alicia wants to understand the impact of peer pressure on adolescent behavior. She goes to a popular mall and observes the activities and interactions of a group of adolescents. Alicia is using

Naturalistic observation

Which type of research study would best be used ti study that shaped a notorious serial killer

Case study

A subject in an experiment that receives no real treatment would be receiving

A placebo

The American Psychological Association guidelines state that research participants must

Be debriefed after the study if the research involves deception

Some research questions cannot be answered using human experiments because

Some studies would be impractical or unethical

A psychologist who studies how hormones affect a persons behavior is using the____________ perspective

Biological

According to this perspective, the methods of science can be used to study the mind

Cognitive

A breakthrough in the scientific field of ____________ ultimately led ti the worlds first psychology laboratory

Chemistry

William James argued that consciousness is analogous to a

Steam

Gestalt psychology argued that perception is

A process in which the whole is more than the sum of the parts

A scientist who studies the strategies involved in playing a gave of chess is most likely to follow a ______________ approach to psychology

Cognitive

The key feature of behaviorism that distinguishes it from other approaches to psychology is that

Only observable behavior Is appropriate for study

____________ was an influential advocate of behaviorism

B.F Skinner

A _____________ psychology would be most likely to explain nail-biting behavior as resulting from an oral fixation and an unconscious, self-destructive tendency

Psychodynamic

The term 'psyche' means

Mind

The humanistic approach toward psychology emphasizes

The positive side of human nature

The ___________ perspective argues that other people have a large influence on our own behaviors

Sociocultural

________ refers to the tendency for each hemisphere of the brain to take control of different functions.

Cortical transmission

Damage to the ________ is the most likely explanation for a brain injury that has devastating effects on human action and personality.

frontal lobes

The action of grabbing your keys with your right hand is controlled by your

left motor cortex

Secretions from the thyroid gland control

metabolism.

The notion that we use only ____ percent of our brains is false and came about during a time when neuroscientists lacked not only the technology but had not figured out the functions of many coritical areas.

10

________ is the interdisciplinary field involving biologists, psychologists, computer scientists, and chemists.

Neuroscience

Which of the following did you NOT inherit from your parents?

Religious beliefs

Darwin's theory of ________ argues that evolution favors those organisms that are best adapted to their environment.

natural selection

Which of the following is true of Prozac?

Prozac can cause changes in sleep, appetite, and thinking

________ are biochemical substances that are released into the synaptic cleft to stimulate or suppress other neurons.

Neurohormones

Which of the following is true of nerve cell development?

Some nerve cells die during the first few years of life.
The are about 100 billion nerve cells in the adult brain.
The brain has excess neurons at birth.
Our brain can generate new nerve cells.

Because the human brain is born already programmed for language, we can say that language is a/an ________ behavioral tendency.

innate

Actor Christopher Reeve was paralyzed from the neck down because of accidental damage to his

spinal cord

The scanning device that makes highly detailed pictures from tissue responses to powerful pulses of energy is the

MRI.

Damage to the ________ would be expected to impair your ability to name three exciting news events that occurred after this damage to your brain.

hippocampus

The "master gland" is a term that refers to the

pituitary gland.

The central nervous system is comprised of all the neurons in the ________ and the ________.

brain; spinal cord

Endocrine glands secrete this group of chemicals into the bloodstream to affect target organs.

hormones

The ________ interconnects the two hemispheres of the cerebrum.

corpus callosum

Vision is processed primarily in the ________ lobes.

occipital

Which sensory system does NOT relay information through the thalamus en route to the cortex?

Smell

Which body structure was altered during the process of evolution which resulted in higher levels of cognitive functioning for humans?

adrenal cortex

A key goal of the Human Genome Project is to

D. determine the complete human genetic code.

Peter suffers damage to his left frontal lobe and loses the ability to speak, although he can still understand speech. Despite the permanence of this damage, he is able to recover some of his speech due to the ability of other parts of the brain to take over lost function. This phenomenon is known by neuroscientists as

plasticity.

Gazzaniga suggests that we think of the human mind as neither a single nor a dual entity but rather as a

confederation of minds.

The Skinner box was designed so that

animals could press a lever to receive food.

The descriptors "positive" and "negative," when used in reference to reinforcers, are synonyms for

"add" and "remove."

The notion that learning produces physical changes in the synapses of the brain is consistent with

. long-term potentiation.

The most effective form of punishment usually involves

penalties, such as loss of privileges.

________ are consequences that alter the likelihood of behaviors.

Rewards and punishments

________ reported that watching violent behaviors makes children more likely to behave violently?

Bandura

While studying ________, ________ discovered ________ conditioning.

digestion; Pavlov; classical

For Little Albert, his fear of ________ was interpreted as an instance of ________.

a white laboratory rat; conditioned fear

Food, sex, and water are considered examples of

primary reinforcers.

Jenna walks into her science class laboratory, and she immediately feels queasy. Today is the day her class is dissecting frogs and she is sickened by the smell of the formaldehyde. However, after an hour Jenna is no longer sickened because of

habituation.

________ refers to the process of experience producing an enduring change in behavior.

Learning

Negative reinforcement involves

the removal of an aversive stimulus.

A practical use of aversive conditioning by John Garcia was to

dissuade wild coyotes from attacking sheep.

A punisher is an aversive consequence that

weakens the behavior it follows.

Using the Premack principle, once you have finished studying for your next biology test you should

do something you enjoy.

The idea that we can learn from seeing the actions of others is known as

observational learning.

Which of the following is an example of a rewarding consequence?

high grades
praise
money
food

The two main types of behavioral learning are

classical conditioning and operant conditioning.

In operant conditioning, behavioral change is brought about by the manipulation of

consequences.

Which of the following is true of punishment?

Punishment interferes with the learning of new and better behaviors.
Punishment must be used consistently in order to be effective.
Aggression is produced by punishment.
Punishment usually involves the application of an aversive stimulus.

Positive reinforcers ________ the likelihood of ensuing responses.

increase

An eye blink is an example of

a reflex.

________ refers to the condition in which media violence reduces emotional arousal while watching violence.

Psychic numbing

The term "reinforcer" refers to any condition that ________ a response.

follows and strengthens

Learning always occurs as a result of

experience

Our ability to retain encoded material over time is known as

storage.

Another term for eidetic imagery is

photographic memory

Your ability to remember where you were the morning of September 11, 2001, is an example of a/an

flashbulb memory.

If you are trying to remember the names of all the U.S. presidents, the serial position effect would predict that you will have difficulty

recalling the presidents in the middle of the list.

Because of the limited capacity of ________, it is unsafe to talk on a cell phone while driving on a freeway during rush-hour.

working memory

The physical trace that is the basis of memory is known as a/an

engram.

If you study for an exam on one day and then continue studying on the next day, you are using

distributed learning.

Suggestibility can cause us to

distort memories and create false ones.

Long-term memory is thought to have

an unlimited capacity.

Luiz is being asked to remember a series of the following 15 letters: FOXHOWLSWANTBUG. He finds this to be easier to remember as the four words "fox howls want bug," rather than 15 individual letters. Luiz has used a process known as

chunking.

The three memory stages, in order of processing, are

sensory; working; long term

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Question text

If I asked you what you ate for dinner on Saturday, it might be a difficult task. However, if I reminded you that you went to Outback Steakhouse with your mother and aunt, it may be easier to remember. Why is that?

You have been provided with retrieval cues.

By looking over the chapter outline, the summary, the Key Questions, and Core Concepts, you form the impression of the overall meaning of the material. The details are later associated with this overall impression. This is known as

the whole method.

You have used maintenance rehearsal to access the memory.

recognition.

________ refers to the inability to form new memories.

Anterograde amnesia

The ________ theory claims that establishing more connections with long-term memories makes information more meaningful and memorable and thus easier to recall.

levels-of-processing

Two strategies that are useful in dealing with the limits of working memory are to

chunk and rehearse.

During the memory process of ________, we select, identify, and label an experience.

Encoding

When you hear a phone number and are able to recall it for a brief period, the phone number is thought to reside within ________ memory.

working

A temporary failure to recall where you left your keys is most likely due to

absent-mindedness.

Elizabeth Loftus is best known for her work on

eyewitness accuracy.

Typically, information is held in working memory for about

20 seconds.

The key tasks of a memory system is to

encode, store, and retrieve.

Mnemonics are methods for

encoding information by associating it with information already in LTM.

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