Stage 1 Pre-Alphabetic
Child rely on visual clues to read words. For example, the Golden Arches long may help students identify the word McDonald's. In alphabet books, a picture of a fish can be a prompt for students to read the word fish. Letter shapes may also prompt children's ability to read a word; for example the shapes of the letters "m" and "y" can assist children in reading the word mommy. At this stage, most children remember a word only after a large number of exposures to it. Children in pre-kindergarten are in the pre-alphabetic stage.
Stage 2 Partial Alphabetic
During the partial alphabetic stage, children transition from visual context to the alphabetic principle. They begin to associate letters in a word's spelling with sounds in a word's pronunciation. For example the word sat may be familiar to children because they recognize the letters 's' and 't' and their corresponding sounds. At this stage child are largely limited to reading sight words and single-syllable words that are phonetically regular. Kindergarten and first grade children are in this transitional stage.
Stage 3 Full Alphabetic
At the full-alphabetic stage of development, children area able to read words using letter-sound relationships. During this stage, reading speed increases as strategies become more automatic.
Stage 4 Consolidated Alphabetic
During the Consolidated alphabetic stage children use alphabetic principles but also make efficient use of predictable letter patterns that are larger than letter-sound correspondences; for example, suffixes like -ed,-ing,-est. These larger letter patterns help students to analyze multisyllabic words and increase reading speed. For example the word interesting, when encountered by a child at the consolidated alphabetic stage, can be broken into /in/ter/est/ing/. This stage may not occur untill the fourth or fifth grade.
Stage 5 Automatic Alphabetic
At the automatic alphabetic stage a child is able to recognize most words automatically by sight. The child is able to apply various strategies to attack unfamiliar words. Multiple word analysis skills are used to develop a high level reading accuracy.
Word Analysis Skills
An inclusive term that refers to all methods of word recognition such as phonics, picture clues, context clues, sight words, and structural analysis (which focuses on root words, base words, affixes, compound words, syllable division, and contractions).
The use of syntactic clues occurs when a student uses the grammatical structure of a text as an aid in decoding an unfamiliar word. In the following sentence the reader's prior knowledge about sentence structure assists him in decoding the unfamiliar word. Ex: The family went to a RESTAURANT for dinner. Although the reader may not recognize the word restaurant in this example, the grammatical structure of the sentence - anon follows a verb- is cueing him that the unknown word is a noun.
Use of Phonetic Analysis
Phonetic Analysis is associating speech sounds with letters and the blending or these sounds into words
Children listen to a sequence of separately spoken phonemes( sounds) and combined the phonemes to form a word. The word can be spoken, read and written. For example /g/r/a/b are four phonemes that when blended together form the word grab
Use of Structural Analysis
Structural analysis is a strategy used for breaking a word into its parts by the identification of prefixes, suffixes, roots, compound words, and syllables the make up that word.
Syllabication is a word analysis skill in which a multisyllabic word is broken into syllables that is pronounced and blended to identify an unknown word. For Ex: pol-li-na-tion is blended together and read as pollination.
Prefixes,Suffixes and Root Words
When using affixes in word analysis, children are taught to pronounce the word parts, blend them, and check the meaning within the context. An affix is either prefix or a suffix. One reason to teach affixes and root words is to help children with the strategy of identifying syllable breaks so that an unknown word is broken into pronounceable parts un- and happy. An example of a word with a suffix is beautiful containing the pronounceable parts beauty and-ful . By knowing what the prefix and suffix mean, children will not only recognize the word but will be more able to determine its meaning.
A compound word is a word that is made up of two or more independent words- teachers teach children to pronounce each word, blend the two words, and then check the meaning of the word in sentence. Compound words are made up of familiar words and each word contributes to the meaning of the compound word. For Ex: schoolhouse is a building that is used for school. It is the teacher's responsibility to model the process of separating the compound words into its parts, pronouncing each, blending the parts back into a whole, and checking for meaning in context
Sight words are words that are recognized instantly and pronounced without applying word analysis skills. Any word that is read instantly is considered to be a sight word. The examples: elephant and curious are sight words if the reader is able to read the words automatically.
High Frequency Sight Words
High frequency sight words are words are words mist frequently used in written text. Examples of high frequency sight words are: The, to and, he, a, and I. Depending in the basic sight word list being cited , there are up to 385 words that account for the majority of all words in printed materials
Irregular Sight words
Irregular sight are sight words that do not follow regular decoding generalizations. When students attempt to apply phonics skills to decode them, incorrect pronunciation result. Examples of irregular sight words are: some, have, does, once, give and said.
Letter-sound relationships are the regular correspondences that exist between letters in the alphabet and sounds
Short Vowel Sounds
Short vowel sounds, represented by the letters a,e,i,o,u are regular in the consonant-vowel-consonant pattern (cvc) and the consonant-vowel-consonant-consonant patter(cvcc)
Long Vowel Sounds
Long vowel sounds are regular in consonant-vowel-consonant-silent e (cvce) letter pattern; he consonant-vowel-vowel (cvv) pattern; and the consonant-vowel-vowel-consonant (cvvc) pattern
CVCe CVV CVVC
/ā/ bake bay rain
/ē/ these tea sheep
/ī/ mice tie tied
/ō/ cone toe coast
/ū/ fuse blue fuel
single consonants in the initial positions of words are highly regular. in other words, the letter-sound relationship is consistent for all words
Ex: Ch /ch/ church
sh /sh/ shape
ph /f/ phone
kn /n/ knife
Consonant digraphs are two letters that stand for one sound. They are also highly regular
Ex: bl /bl/ black
cl /cl/ clock
pl /pl/ plane
gr /gr/ green
Teaching practices that develop word identification strategies
Children must learn to identify words quickly so the focus is on the meaning of what they are reading. Research indicates there is a correlation between word identification and reading comprehension.
Decoding instruction, as indicated in the previous discussion, focuses on:
- The relationship between sounds and letters
- word families
- blending sounds
- identification of roots,pregixes and suffixes
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