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A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers, and then he observed their aggression levels. In this study, the independent variable was the:

viewing of the violent film.

The first step in the scientific method involves:

posing a question.

Joseph always dates women who are at least ten years older than he is. Which of the following might Freud propose as an explanation for Joseph's attraction to older women?

Joseph is stuck in the phallic stage of development.

A researcher was interested in finding out whether children's ability to exhibit self-control when offered unhealthy food changed with age. He asked parents of three-year-old, six-year-old, and nine-year-old children to bring their children into the laboratory, where they were allowed to eat as much candy, cookies, and cake as they wanted. The researcher then compared the amount of food eaten by children of the three different ages. This is an example of:

cross-sectional research.

An example of a behavior by a researcher that would be considered unethical is:

changing the data to support the hypothesis.

At 55 years of age, Ross lost his job and had to be retrained in a new field that required taking a course over the Internet. Never having gone online, he was baffled while his younger classmates excelled. His frustration may be attributed to differences in the:

historical context.

If a group of people have the same ancestors, religion, and language, they are said to be part of the same:

ethnic group.

Which of the following is the most complex and beneficial way to study change over time?

a cross-sequential design.

Which of the following is an example of a survey method?

personal interviews.

If a scientist wanted to use scientific observation to see how frequently schoolchildren share food at lunch, she could:

watch the children from an unobtrusive spot in the school lunchroom.

When a person can understand new experience using his existing thought processes, he has achieved

cognitive equilibrium

Social learning theory emphasizes:

observation and imitation.

The idea that the study of development involves several academic fields defines the ____ characteristic of development:

multidisciplinary

Why is replication of a study necessary?

it is needed before the scientific community accepts the study's conclusions.

The final step in the scientific method is:

report the results.

Imagine you and your friend are having a discussion about politics. Your friend makes an argument that puts your views into disequilibrium. If you respond by believing that your friend is simply uninformed or dumb, Piaget would say that you are demonstrating:

assimilation

Han's parents immigrated to the United States from China. While they focused strongly on passing their cultural traditions down to their son, they were distressed to observe Han incorporating some American traditions into their Chinese heritage. It might be helpful for Han's parents to understand that Han:

will experience his culture somewhat differently...

in cross sectional research on development, each of the groups studied is of a different:

age

The science of human development may best be described as an attempt to understand:

how and why people change across the life span.

A manner of studying human development that takes into account all phases of life:

life-span perspective.

About how much weight will the average fetus gain during the last three months of gestation?

5 pounds.

When a sperm and ovum unite, what is formed?

a zygote.

A sperm has ______ as many chromosomes as a normal body cell.

half.

Saul and Joe are unrelated next-door neighbors. What percentage of the human genome do they share?

99.5%

Babies considered small for their gestational age (SGA):

weigh less than expected, given the length of pregnancy.

Which of the following is important to remember when considering that genes are a major influence on behaviors, disease, and disorders?

"Genes are not destiny."

Kyoto's daughter is five days old. Kyoto is feeling sad and inadequate. She may be experiencing:

postpartum depression.

What percentage of births in the United States are from cesarean sections?

33%

In a first birth, the average length of active labor is:

about 12 hours.

At the end of the third month of gestation the fetus will weigh approximately ______ and will be about ______ long.

3 ounces, 3 inches.

The scientific method used by an infant in stage five is:

trial and error.

Piaget referred to toddlers in stage five as:

little scientists.

The neonate's vision:

is clearest when objects are 4 to 30 inches away.

After the child's vocabulary has reached about 50 words, the vocabulary increases by approximately ______ words per month.

50-100

By 10 months of age, Alan has a vocabulary of a dozen words. B. F. Skinner would have attributed Alan's rapid speech development mainly to his:

parents talking to him frequently.

In which of Piaget's sensorimotor stages do infants become aware of things and respond to people and objects?

stage three

According to Chomsky's theory of language acquisition:

children have an inborn ability to learn language.

Piaget's stage six of sensorimotor intelligence is known as:

mental combinations.

The biological protection of the brain when malnutrition temporarily affects body growth is known as:

head-sparing.

The use of prefixes, suffixes, intonation, verb forms, pronouns, and other parts of speech are all parts of:

grammar.

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