which ear structure would you tell her is responsible for equalizing atmospheric pressure when swallowing, sneezing, or yawning?
The eustachian tube is a cartilaginous and bony passageway between the nasopharynx and the middle ear that opens briefly to equalize the middle ear pressure with that of the atmospheric pressure when swallowing, yawning, or sneezing.
Middle ear is air filled and consisted of the malleus (umbo is part of the malleus), the incus, the stapes, and Eustachian tube.
The organ of Corti is a coiled structure located inside the?
cochlea in the inner ear.
The hair cells of Corti and membrane of Corti:
stimulate the eighth cranial nerve.
Which of the following recreational drugs is commonly associated with nasal septum perforation?
Long-term cocaine snorting.
An infant's auditory canal, compared with an adult's, is:
the infant's auditory canal is shorter and has an upward curve, which is the reason that pulling the pinna down straightens the canal.
. Which medications are likely to contribute to his hearing loss?
Ototoxic medications include aminoglycoside, salicylates, furosemide, streptomycin, quinine, ethacrynic acid, and cisplatin.
What is Labyrinthitis?
Inflammation of the labyrinth or inner ear.
To approximate vocal frequencies, which tuning fork should be used to assess hearing?
Use of 500 to 1000 Hz approximates vocal frequencies.
An ear auricle with a low-set or unusual angle may indicate chromosomal aberration or:
renal disorders. An auricle with a low-set or unusual angle may indicate chromosomal aberrations or renal disorders.
what is Middle ear effusion?
An amber color, with bulging of the tympanic membrane and without mobility or redness, most often indicates the presence of fluid in the middle ear.
Speech with a monotonous tone and erratic volume may indicate
Speech with a monotonous tone and erratic volume may indicate hearing loss.
You are performing Weber and Rinne hearing tests. For the Weber test, the sound lateralized to the unaffected ear; for the Rinne test, air conduction-to-bone conduction ratio was less than 2:1. You interpret these findings as suggestive of:
These results are consistent with a sensorineural hearing loss, a defect in the inner ear. Otitis externa and impacted cerumen are conditions of the external ear that can cause conductive hearing problems.
Acute otitis media is:
acute or chronic inflammation of the middle ear; usually occurs as a complication of an upper respiratory infection, and is marked by earache, Anorexia, fever, hearing loss, and sometimes rupture of the tympanic membrane.
Otitis externa is
In swimmers, divers and surfers, chronic cold water exposure can lead to the growth of bony swellings in the canal known as exostoses. These are generally asymptomatic when small, but when larger can interfere with the drainage of wax and predispose to infections such as otitis externa.
a type of skin cyst located in the middle ear.
Otosclerosis is an abnormal growth of bone near the middle ear. It can result in hearing loss.
Ménière disease is
Meniere disease is a disorder of the inner ear that can affect hearing and balance to a varying degree. It is characterized by episodes of vertigo, low pitched tinnitus, and hearing loss.
chroasma is A temporary condition, typically caused by hormonal changes, in which large brown patches form on the skin, mainly on the face.
A swelling formed on the presenting part of the head of a fetus during labor, resulting in edema and varying degrees of scalp hemorrhage.
what is cephalohematoma?
cephalohematoma (American English) is a hemorrhage of blood between the skull and the periosteum of a newborn baby secondary to rupture of blood vessels crossing the periosteum
Craniotabes is softening of the outer table of the skull.
Macewen sign is?
Macewen's sign is a sign used to help to diagnose hydrocephalus (accumulation of excess cerebrospinal fluid) and brain abscesses. Tapping (percussion) the skull near the junction of the frontal, temporal and parietal bones will produce a stronger resonant sound when either hydrocephalus or a brain abscess are present.
what is torticollis?
Torticollis is usually caused by constraint of the newborn in utero or injury during vaginal delivery. The other symptoms may be difficult to discern because of the infant's lack of fine motor skills and control of voluntary muscle groups. During a head and neck assessment of a neonate, it is not important to screen for signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy, for uneven movement of the eyes, or for unilateral movement of the tongue.
To detect bruits in the head and neck region, you should place the bell of the stethoscope:
Vascular abnormalities of the head and neck may cause audible bruits and are best heard over the eyes, in the temporal area, and below the occiput. These are all areas of major blood supply to the head.
what are tics?
Tics are spasmodic, repetitive contractions of the muscles of the face, head, or neck.
Which is the best way to position a patient's neck for palpation of the thyroid?
Flexed toward the side being examined.
Tracheal tug suggests the presence of a(n):
When palpating the trachea, an ominous sign of an aortic aneurysm is a tugging sensation in sync with the pulse of the patient.
what is the most common birth injury of head trauma?
Caput succedaneum. results in swelling of the scalp.
what is Retinoblastoma?
Retinoblastoma is a rapidly developing cancer that develops in the cells of retina, the light-detecting tissue of the eye.
what is Bitemporal hemianopia ?
Bitemporal hemianopia is caused by a lesion, most commonly a pituitary tumor, interrupting optic chiasm.
what is Homonymous hemianopia?
Homonymous hemianopia can be caused by a lesion arising in optic nerve radiation on either side of the brain.
what is Blepharitis ?
inflammation of the eyelid.
which cranial nerve is Ptosis damaged?
Ptosis is caused by a congenital defect of the muscle around the eye controlled by cranial nerve III.
what is hordeola or hordeolum?
whAt is Pterygium?
(Surfer's Eye) most often refers to a benign growth of the conjunctiva.
what is Strabismus?
Both eyes do not focus on an object simultaneously.
what is Paralytic strabismus?
One or more extraocular muscles or their nerve supply is impaired.
what is Nonparalytic strabismus
Nonparalytic strabismus: Patient can focus with either eye but not with both simultaneously.
Nonparalytic strabismus can be presenting sign of pathology such as infantile cataract or retinoblastoma.
what is Drusen bodies of the eye?
yellow deposit under the retina.
what is Retinitis pigmentosa?
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited, degenerative night blindness and is characterized by the hallmark pigmentation of the peripheral fields or bone spicules.
what is Lipemia retinalis?
white appearance of the retina and is retinalis is a result of an increase in triglyceride levels.
what is horner syndrom?
Horner syndrome: pupil abnormality. Horner syndrome is characterized by mild pupil constriction and drooping of the upper lid of the same eye. Horner syndrome is a result of a break in the sympathetic nerve supply to that eye.
what is Erythroblastosis fetalis?
Erythroblastosis fetalis is when the mother has antibodies in her blood to the baby's blood group and the antibodies cross the placenta and start breaking down the baby's red blood cells causing hemolytic anemia. The most common is when a previously sensitised Rhesus Negative mother has a Rhesus positive baby, but ABO incompatibbility is not unknown.