AP US History ID's Chapter 7

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Loyalists vs. Patriots

Loyalists- Supporters of Britain living in America (2/3)
Patriots- Colonists who wanted American Independence

Common Sense (1776)

Written by THOMAS PAINE
Put blame for Colonists' oppression on King George III
Voices reasons convincing loyalists WHY WE SHOULD REVOLT

Battle of Trenton (Dec 26 1776)

GW crosses Delaware and surprise attacks Hassan mercenaries Christmas night
All captured w/ few losses
INSPIRES enlistment and RAISES MORALE!

Battle of Saratoga (1777)

Turning point in war
General Burgoyne outnumbered 3:1, surrenders
Sways LOUIS XVI TO SEND NAVY AND SUPPLIES TO HELP U.S. WIN WAR (france believed US had a winning chance)

Battle of Yorktown (1781)

Colonel Army pushes south for NY and West VA
Leads to Cornwallis' SURRENDER
END OF WAR

George Washington

1st President- Leader of the Continental Army
Invaded Canada

Valley Forge
(1777-1778)

Encampment of US militia during rev. war, where british could have killed freezing soldiers only 20 miles away, but didn't
changed US morale (WE CAN DO THIS!)

Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776)

George Mason:
Declared sovereignty resided in people and gov was SERVING THE PEOPLE
PEOPLE had the right to reform alter or ABOLISH gov.
Influenced State const and bill of rights

Articles of Confederation
(1776-1767)

Created weak gov w/ loose alliance between states with the MOST power, NO PRESIDENT/LEADER
Ratified 1781
Created northwest ordinance

Land Ordinance of 1785

Made provision for federal survey of Newly Incorporated Lands
Divided the land into townships of 36 sections

Northwest Ordinance (no slavery past ohio river)
(1787)

Make-a-State Plan
Established system of gov for territory North of Ohio River
Establish IMPORTANT IDEA OF BRINGING NEW TERRITORY INTO STATES ON AN EQUAL BASIS W/ ORIGINAL 13 STATES

Treaty of Paris (1783)

America granted full independence, loses territory of Canada, loyalists compensated for seized property

Manumission of slaves

Freeing of Slaves on both side b/c either it was the job of the slave (US) or slave was promised freedom if they fought in rev war (US and Eng.)
(US didnt want to look like hypocrites for claiming all men created equal in DOI, so they also freed slaves)

federalism
(state constitutions and national power)

Strong Central Gov provided by power divided between state and national gov
checks and balances
amendable const.

Shay's Rebellion
(1781)

West Massachusetts
Angry Farmers in debt revolted against gov and US
There was no militia to stop the Farmers
So founding fathers had to rethink gov.

Constitutional Convention (James Madison, father of const.)
(1787)

Gathering for purpose of writing a new const./ revising an old one (philadelphia)

Virginia Plan (Madison's idea, EDMUND PRESENTED IT)
(1787)

Proposed national legislature
states represented according to pop.
BICAMERAL CONGRESS

New Jersey Plan
(const convention 1787)

Proposed equal representation based on pop.
Strengthened national gov

Great (CT) Compromise
(const. convention 1787)

JAMES MADISON
Proposed bicameral legislature in all states, equally represented in senate, and proportion representation in House
3 branch plan

3/5 Compromise (1787)

3/5 of slave pop. counted for enumeration purposes
addresses distribution of slaves, and gives more appointment of members in US House of Representatives

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