the period of time before history was recorded into writing
grassy plain regions with mild climate, nutritious plants, and varied wildlife of meat and skins for clothing, but began to dry up 5-6,000 years ago to make the world's largest desert: the Sahara
the first culture that began in the Nile Valley where they are dependable on hunting, fishing, herding, farming, and especially mining of golds and other precious minerals.
a Nubian kingdom, built around 750 B.C. to be the strongest and longest lasting kingdom, skilled in trade and ironwork in which they traded for iron for ivory, ebony, ostrich feathers, and gold. However, the spread of iron-making makes Kush's iron less valuable and was finally invaded by Aksum in A.D. 350
Groups of traders and their pack animals loaded with trade items, which were traded across the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea to Arabia, India, and China.
a ruler in ancient Egypt
An empire built on conquest, they invented the system of mathematics, writing, and recording; were the first to organize an one govt country, and able to use thousands of laborers to make the pyramids. Their world culture would continue and be marveled.
Created by the Soninke people, who lived on S Sahara; it prospered from its high taxes on the monopoly of gold and salt , armmy of W Muslims in 1076 to conquer Ghana and its capital until its local leaders took advantage and spit into individual kingdoms
Followers of the teachings of Mohammed and believe in one God, refer Jesus and Hebrew prophets as God's messengers, and believe Mohammed was the last and greatest prophets.
Founded by Mohammed, it spread quickly by traders from Arabia to North Africa westward and southward. Welcomed by Ghana to attract wealthy Muslims but Africans were slow to accept it. Eventually more gradually accepted because (1) to gain higher status because Muslims were viewed to be powerful (2) Arabic is widely used in trade (3) compatible to many African customs.
the language of Islam which is the official language for all North African countries including the Rep. of Sudan and popular even in E and W Africa
Relationship based on common ancestors and was the central in African life. It is more important than the individual. They look for dead ancestors for for help and honor them with dance, song, drum, and prayer. The oldest man served as a priest and ran religious ceremonies.
Used to be a small state on the Upper Niger R. in the 600s and occupied by the Mandinka people, it became an empire when Ghana was conquered and many people converted into Islam. However, small states broke away; and in late 1499s, it was conquered by the Songhai
Mali's Muslim leader who defeated Ghana and turned Mali into an empire. He conquered new lands and took over the caravan trade.
Abu Bakari II
A Mali ruler during the early 1300s who dreamed of sending a fleet to sea to explore the world. He sent it down the Senegal R. but never was heard again.
A journey to a sacred place or Mecca, the holy city of Islam in Arabia
Came to power in 1312, he was famous for his lavish pilgrimage in which he gave away so much gold that the gold price stayed down in Cairo for 12 yr. He made Mali into a powerful empire, expanded trading connections, and promoted culture and learning such as in Timbuktu, famous for it mosques, schools, and its royal palaces. He died in 1337
Been a part of the Mali, it conquered Ghana and thrived till the late 1500s when it was invaded by Moroccans, who envious of their wealth, in 1591.
A Muslim general who conquered Mali and captured Timbuktu in 1465. He laid siege on the famous learning and trading center of Djenne, which held out for seven years, seven months, and seven days. Finally, he was able to control over major trading cities of the region. He died in 1492.
Askia the Great
Declared himself emperor, he expanded the empire and was devout Muslim. His pilgrimage form 1495-7 rivaled Mansa Musa's. Timbuktu became a better-known cultural and learning center.