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The social and political system in use in Francein the 1770s, called the ___, had been in place since the Middle Ages.

Old Regime

A financial crisis, brought on in part by excessive spending and huge gambling losses by ___, resulted in forcing ___to call the ___ into session for the first timein 175 years.

Estates-General; Louis XVI; Marie Antoinette

The delegates of the ___, who represented 98 % of the French population, felt they should have as much say in the decision-making process as the ___ and the ___combined.

First Estate; Second Estate; Third Estate

Although not a member of the Third Estate, ___was a spokesman for this group who recommended that its delegates should name themselves the ___ and pass laws and make reforms in the name of the French people.

Old Regime; National Assembly

When Third Estate delegates wre forced to find a new meeting place, they made a pledge, called the ___, to continue their meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution.

Tennis Court Oath

The noblemen of the ___and the clergy of the ___were forced by the king to join the National Assembly.

First Estate; Second Estate

Expecting trouble, ___called up mercenary troops. This action caused a rebellion that fueled a widespread emotional reaction called the ___.

Louis XVI; Great Fear

This describes the most conservative members of the Legislative Assembly.

right-wing

This was a radical group, named for the style of breeches its members wore.

sans-culottes

This refers to the nobles who fled France but still hoped to restore the monarchy.

emigres

This is the name of the government body that replaced the National Assembly.

Legislative Assembly

This describes the most radical members fo the Legislative Assembly.

left-wing

This person wrote a strong response to "A Declaration of hte Rights of Man and of the Citizen" because it did not give the same rights to women that it gave to men.

Olympe de Gouges

This person claimed it was possible to build a "republic of virtue" by means of what came to be known as the Reign of Terror.

Miximilien Robespierre

This radical revolutionary was fatally stabbled by another revolutionary.

Jean-Paul Marat

This was invented to further humane goals, though often used in contradiction to such goals.

guillotine

Just before being beheaded, this person suggested that his severed head would be "well worth seeing".

Georges Danton

Out of fear for their own safety, members of this group finally put an end to the Reign of Terror.

National Convention

A "coup d'etat" describes a sudden , forceful seizure of governmental control. T or F

True

At first, in an attempt to appear to be a constitutionally chosen leader, Napoleon held a vote of the people or "plebiscite". T or F

True

As part of his reform program, Napoleon set up lycees, or "national banks". T or F

False, public school

In 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte made himself the "president" of France. T or F

False, emperor

To restore good relations between France and the Roman Catholic Church, Napoleon and the pope signed a "concordat", or agreement. T or F

True

In Eqypt and later in the Battle of "Saint Dominque", Napoleon suffered rare military defeats at the hands of the same man, British Admiral Horatio Nelson. T or F

False, Trafalgar

In 1806, Napoleon attempted to make Europe more self-sufficient throught the use of what he termed the ___.

Continental System

Great Britian responded with a ___ against France, which became the major cause of a war between Great Britian and the United States.

blockade

Because Portugal refused to honor the ___, Napoleon sent an army through Spain to invade Portugal.

Continental System

French actions in Spain let to armed resistance by ___and a long and draining conflict called the ___.

guerrillas; Peninsular War

In 1812, Napoleon and 400,000 troops encountered severe difficulties as a result of the ___ used by the Russian leader in response to France's invasion.

scorched-earth policy

After suffering defeat at he hands of King Frederick III of Prussia and ___ of Russia, Napoleon was exiled to the island of ___.

Elba; Czar Alexander I

After escaping from exile, Napoleon gathered volunteers from the French countryside and seized power from ___.

King Louis XVIII

Napoleon's last bid for power, called ___, ended with his defeat at the ___.

Hundred Days; Battle of Waterloo

The person most responsible for the accomplishments of the Congress of Vienna was ___.

Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria

The accomplishments of the Congress of Vienna included all of the following EXCEPT___.

signing the alliances that made up the Concert of Europe

The actions of the Congress of Vienna helped to generate and independence movement in ___.

South America

All of the following were members of the Holy Alliance EXCEPT___.

Italy

As a result of actions taken by the Congress of Vienna, the monarchy was restored on the basis of "legitimacy" in ___.

Spain

He was the priest who issued the Grito de Dolores, a call for a peasant rebellion in Mexico.

Miguel Hidalgo

This was the name of the French third of the tisland of Hispanola.

Saint-Dominque

He led a slave revolt that ended in slavery on the island of Hispanola.

Toussaint L'Ouverture

This term was used in Latin America to describe people of mixed European and Indian ancestory.

mestizos

This term was used in Latin America to describe Latin Americans born in Spain.

peninsulares

He was known as Libertador.

Simon Bolivar

After winning independence for Argentina and Chilie, he gave up command of his army.

Jose de San Martin

This term was used in Latin America to describe people of mixed European and African ancestory.

mulattos

He was a priest who was also a skillful miliatary leader.

Jose Maria Morelos

He led his forces against the Spanish army in the Battle of Ayacucho, the last major battle in the Spanish colonies' war for independence.

Simon Bolivar

This term was used in Latin America to describe Spaniards born in Latin America.

creoles

This term names the people at the top of Spanish American society.

peninsulares

In the first half of the 1800s, which of the following was most likely to be a political liberal?

a middle-class merchant

A key characteristic kof nationalism is ___.

a shared culture

Which elected ruler of France declared himself emperor?

Louis-Napoleon

In 1849, most of Europe was under the control of the ___.

conservatives

Which of the following issued the Edict of Emancipation?

Alexander II

How successful were the Revolutions of 1830 and 1848?

None achieved their goals

Which country suffered the most lost territory as a result of the unification of Italy?

Austria

Romed became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy after the conquest of ___.

the Papal States

Which of the following was the leader of the Red Shirts?

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Which event did Otto von Bismarck use to gain support from Germans in the south?

the Franco-Prussian War

Who originated the political style known as realpolitik?

Otto von Bismarck

The ruler of the new, unified German empire was given the title of ___.

kaiser

Which of the following is largely identified with the artistic movement known as romanticism?

the Gothic novel

Which of the following ideas is associated with romanticism?

wild emotions and feelings

In the first practical process of reproducing photographs for books on what were the photographs printed?

paper

Which of the following was a factor in the rise of the realism movement?

industrialism

Which of the following descriptions is accurate for Goethe, Chopin, Coleridge, and Constable?

romantic

Each of the following is properly matched with the artistic movement to which he or she contributed EXCEPT___.

Emile Zola-romanticism

Which of the following is a characteristic of impressionism?

creation of mental pictures

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