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philosophes

Public intellectuals dedicating to solving real problems in the world

Enlightenment

Intellectual movement to apply reason to solve problems

salons

Informal gatherings sponsored by wealthy women that provided a forum for new ideas and debate

atheist

A person who does not believe in the existence of God

deist

A person who believes in God but gives him no active role in human affairs

abolitionists

Those who want to end slavery

laissez-faire

Economic doctrine that advocates freeing the economy from government intervention and control

social contract

All political authority comes not from divine right but from the consent of the governed

romanticism

Artistic movement that glorified nature, emotion, genuis, and imagination

Methodism

Religious movement founded by John Wesley that insists on self discipline and religious study and observance

Freemasons

Associations of nobles and artisans who shared an interest in Enlightenment reforms

industrialization

Economic change brought about by the invention of steam engines and the rise of factories

enlightened despots

Rulers who tried to promote reform without giving up their own supreme political power

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