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Public intellectuals dedicating to solving real problems in the world


Intellectual movement to apply reason to solve problems


Informal gatherings sponsored by wealthy women that provided a forum for new ideas and debate


A person who does not believe in the existence of God


A person who believes in God but gives him no active role in human affairs


Those who want to end slavery


Economic doctrine that advocates freeing the economy from government intervention and control

social contract

All political authority comes not from divine right but from the consent of the governed


Artistic movement that glorified nature, emotion, genuis, and imagination


Religious movement founded by John Wesley that insists on self discipline and religious study and observance


Associations of nobles and artisans who shared an interest in Enlightenment reforms


Economic change brought about by the invention of steam engines and the rise of factories

enlightened despots

Rulers who tried to promote reform without giving up their own supreme political power

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