the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
every non-genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes.
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms.
twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. they are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. the heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity).
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increases reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change.