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Norm-page 86

an avg. or standard measurement calculated from the measurement of many individuals within a specific group or population

Heading sparing-page 87

a biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition disrupts body growth the brain is the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition

Neuron-page 88

one of billions of nerve cells in the central nervous system especially in the brain

Cortex-page 88

the outer layers of the brain in humans and other mammals most thinking feeling and sensing involve the cortex sometimes called the NEOCORTEX

Axon-page 88

a fiber that extends from a neuron and transmits electrochemical impulses from that neurons to the dendrites of other neurons

Dendrite-page 88

a fiber that extends from a neuron and recieves electrochemical impulses transmitted from other neurons via their axons

Synapse-page 88

the intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of other neurons

Neurotransmitter-page 88

a brain chemical that carries infromation from the axon of sending neuron to the dendrites of a receiving neuron

Prefrontal cortex- page 90

The area of the cortex at the front of the brain that specializes in anticipation planning and impulse control

Shaken baby syndrome-page 91

a life threatening injury that occurs when an infant if forcefully shaken back an fourth a motion that ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections

REM-page 93

rapid eye movement sleep a stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed lids dreaming and rapid brain waves

Reflex-page 94

an unlearned involuntary action or movement emitted in response to a particular stimulus a reflex is an automatic response that is built into the nervous system and occurs without conscious thought

Gross motor skills-page 95

physcial abilites involving large body movements such as walking and jumping-gross means big

Fine motor skills-page 96

physical abilities involving small body movements especially of the hands and fingers such as drawing and picking up a coin fine means small

Sensation-page 97

the response of a sensory system eyes, ears, skin, tongue, nose when it detects a stimulus

Perception-page 97

The mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation

Binocular vision-page 98

The ability to focus the two eyes in a coordinated manner in order to see one image

Immunization-page 100

a process that stimulates the bodys immune system to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease. immunization may be accomplished either naturally by having the disease or through vaccination often by having an injection

SIDS-page 103

sudden infant death syndrom a situation in which a seemingly healthy infant at least 2 months old suddenly stops breathing and dies unexpectedly while sleep

Co-sleeping page 103

a custome in which parents and their children sleep together in the same bed also called bed sharing

Sensorimotor intelligence-page 105

piagets term for the way infants think by using their senses and motor skills during the first period of cognitive development

Assimilation-page 106

piagets term for a type of adaptation in which new experiences are interpreted to fit into as assimilate with old ideas

Accommodation-page 106

piagets term for type of adapation in which old ideas are restructured to include or accommodate new experiences

Object permanence-page 107

The realication that objects including people still exist when they can no longer be seen touched or heard

Little scientist-page 108

the stage five toddler age 12-18 months who experiments without anticipating the results using trial and error in active and creative exploration

Information processing theory-page 108

a perspective that compares human thinking processes by analogy to computer analysis of data including sensory input connections stored memories and output

Visual cliff-page 109

an experimental apparatus that gives an illusion of a sudden dropoff between one horizontal surface and another

Reminder session- page 111

a perceptual experience tha is intended to help a person recollect an idea a thing or an experience without testing whether the person remembers it at the moment

Child directed speech- page 112

The high pitched simplified and repetitive way adults speak to infants also called baby talk or motherese

Babbling-page 113

the extended repetioniton of certain syllables such as ba ba ba that begins when babies are between 6 and 9 months old

Naming explosion- page 113

a sudden increase in an infants vocabulary especially in the number of nouns that begins at about 28 months of age

Holophrase-page 114

a single word that isused to express a complete meaningful thought

Language acqusition device- page 117

chomiskys term for a hypothesized mental structure that enables humans to learn language including the basic aspects of grammar vocab, and intonation

Social smile-page 124

a smile evoked by a human face normally first evident in infants about 6 weeks after birth

Stranger wariness- page 125

an infants expression of concern a quiet stare when clinging to a familar person or a look of sadness when a stranger appears

Seperation anxiety-page 125

an infants distress when a familar caregiver leaves most obvious between 9 and 14 months

Self awarness-page 126

a persons realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body mind and actions are seperate from those other people

Trust versus mistrust-page 131

ericksons first crisis of psychosocial development infants learn basic trust if the would is a secure place where their basic needs for food comfort attention and so on are met

Autonomy versus shame and doubt- page 131

ericksons second crisis of psychosocial development toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self rule over their actions and their bodies

Social learning- page 132

the acquisition of behavior patterns by observing the behavior of others

Working model-page 133

in cognitive theory a set of assumptions that are the individual uses or to organize perceptions and experiences for examples a person might assume that other people are trustworthy and be surprised by evidece that this working model of human behavior is erroneous

Ethnotheory-page 133

a theory that underlies the values and practices of a culture but is not usually apparent to the people within the culture

Temperament-page 134

inborn differences between one person and another in emotions activity and self regulation temperament is epigenetic origniating in the genes but affected by child rearing practices

Big five-page 135

The five basic clusters of personality traits that remain quite stable throughout life openness conscientiousness extroversion agreebleness and neuroticism

Proximal parenting-page136

caregiving practice that involve being physically close to the baby with frequent holding and touching

Distal parenting-page 136

caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby providing distant from the baby providing toys food and face to face communciation with minimal holding and touching

Goodness of fit

a similarity of temperament and values that produces a smooth interaction between and individual and his or her social context including family school and community

Synchrony-page 140

a coordinated rapid and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant

Still face technique-page 141

an experimental practice in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving and expressionless in face to face interaction with an infant

Attachment-page 141

according to ainsworth an affectional tie that an infant forms with a caregiver a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time

Secure attachment-page 142

a relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her cargiver

Insecure avoidant attachment-page 143

a pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver as when the infant seems not to care about the caregivers presence departure or return

Insecure resistnat/ambivalent attachment-page 143

a pattern of attachment in which an infants anxiety and uncertainity are evident as when the infant becomes very upset at separtion from the caregiver and both reisists and seeks contact on reunion

Disorganized attachment-page 143

a type of attachment that is marked by an infants inconsistent reactions to the caregivers departure and return

Strange situation-page 143

a laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by evoking infants reactions to the stress various adults comings and goings in an unfamilar playroom

Social referencing-page 145

seeking information about how to react to an unfamilar or ambiguous object or event by observing someone elses expressions and reactions that other person becomes a social reference

Family day care- page 147

child care that includes several children of various ages and usually occurs in the home of a woman who is paid to provide it

Center day care-page 147

child care that occurs in a place especially designated for the purpose where several paid adults care for many children usually the children are grouped by age the day care center is licensed and providers are trained and certified in child development

Myelination-page166

the process by which axons become coated with myelin a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron

Corpus collosum-page 167

a long thick band of nerve fiver that connects the left and right hemisperes of the brain and allows communication between them

Lateralization-page167

literally sidedness referring to the specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain with one side dominant for each activity the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body and vice versa

Perseveration-page 168

the tendency to preservere in or stick to one thought or action for a long time

Amygdala-page 169

a tiny brain structure that registers emotions particulary fear and anxiety

Hippocampus-page 169

a brain structure that is central processor of memory especially memory for locations

Hypothalamus-page 169

a brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body

Preoperational intellignece-page 171

piagents term for cognitve development between the ages of about 2 and 6 it includes language and imagination but logical operational thinking is not yet possible

Centration-171

a characterisitc of preoperational though whereby a young child focuses on one idea excluding all others

Egocentrism-page 171

piagets term for young childrens tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective

Focus on apperance-page 171

a characterisitcs of preoperational thought whereby a young child ignores all attributes that are not apparent

Static reasoning-page 171

a characterisitics of preoperational thought whereby a young child thinks that nothing changes whatever is now has always been and always will be

Irreversibility-page 171

a characteristic of preoperational though whereby a young child thinks that nothing can be undone a thing cannot be restored to the way it was before a change occured

Conservation-page 173

the principle that the amount of a substance remains the same when its apperance changes

Animism-page 173

the belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive

Apprentice in thinking-page 173

Vygotskys term for a person whose cognition is stimulated and directed by older and more skilled members of society

Zone of proximal development-page 174

vygotskys term for the skills cognitive as well as physcial that a person can excersize only with assistanace not yet independently

Scaffolding-page 174

temporary support that is tailored to a learners needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process

Private speech-page 175

the internal dialogue tha occurs when people talk to themselves

Social mediation-page 175

human interaction that expands and advances understanding often through words that one person uses to explain something to another

Theory-theory-page 176

the idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear

Theory of mind-page 177

a persons theory of what other people might be thinking in order to have a theory of mind children must realize that othe people are not necessarily thinking the same thoughts that they themselves are that realization is seldom achieved before age 4

Fast mapping-page 179

the speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by tentatively placing them in mental categories according to their perceived meaning

Overregulation-page 180

the application of rules of grammar even when exceptions occur making the language seem more regular than it actually is

Reggio emilia approach-page 184

a famous program of early childhood education that originated in the town of reggio emilia italy it encourages each childs creativity in a caregully designed settings

Project head start-page 186

the most widespread early childhood education program in the united states begun in 1965 and funded by the federal government

Injury control/harm reduction-page 188

practices that are aimed at antipating controlling and preventing dangerous activities these practices reflect the beliefs that accidents are not random and that injuries can be made less harmful if proper controls are in place

Primary prevention-page 189

actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance such as injury disease or abuse

Secondary prevention-page 189

actions that avert harm in a high risk situation such as stopping a car before it hits a pedestrian or installing traffic lights at dangerous intersections

Tertiary prevention-page 189

actions such as immediate and effective medical treatment that are taken after an adverse event occurs and that are aimed at reducing the harm or preventing disability

Child maltreatment-page 190

intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment or anyone under 18 years of age

Child abuse-page 190

deliberate action that is harmful to a childs physical emotional or sexual well being

Child neglect-page 190

failure to meet a childs basic physical educational or emotional needs

Substantiated maltreatment-page 191

harm or endangerment that has been reported investigated and verified

Permanency planning-page 193

an effort by child welfare authorities to find a long term libing situation that will provide stability and support for maltreated child. A goal is to avoid repeated changes of cargiver or school which can ve particularly harmful to the child

Foster care-page 193

a leagal pblicity supported system in which a maltreated child is removed from the parents custody and entrusted to another adult or family which is reimbrsed for expenses incurred in meeting the childs needs

Kinship care-page 193

a form of foster care in which a relative of a maltreated child usully a grandparent becomes the approved caregiver

Emotional Regulation-page 197

the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed

Initiative verus guilt-198

ericksons third psychosocial crisis in which children undertake new skills and activites and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them

Self esteem-page 198

a persons evaluation of his or her own worth either in specifics or in general

Self concept-page 198

a persons understanding of who he or she is incorportation self esteem physical apperance personality and various personal traits such as gender and size

Intrinsic motivation-page 200

a drive or reason to pursue a goal that comes from inside a person such as the need to feel smart or competent

Extrinsic motivation-page 200

a drive or reason to pursue a goal that arises from the need to have ones achievements rewarded from outside perhaps by receiviing material pssessions or another persons esteem

Psychopathology-page 201

an illness or disorder of the mind

Extermalizing problems-page 201

diffiulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physcial or verbal outbursts as by lashing out at other people or breaking things

Internalizing problems-page 202

difficultly with emotional regulation that involves turning ones emotional distress inward as by feeling excessively guilty ashamed or worthless

Sociodramatic play-page 207

pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create

Rough and tumble play- page 207

play that mimics aggression through wrestling chasing or hitting but in which there is no intent to harm

Authoritarian parenting- page 210

an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards strict punishment of misconduct and little communication

Permissive parenting-page 210

an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication vut little displine guidnace or control

Neglectful/ univolved parenting-page 210

an approach to child rearing in which the parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in their childrens lives

Empathy- page 215

the ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person especially when the differ from ones own

Antipathy-page 215

feelings of dislike or even hatred toward another person

Prosocial behavior-page 215

actions that are helpful and kind but that are of no obvious benefit to the person doing them

Antisocial behavior-page 215

actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person

Instrumental aggression- page 215

hurtful behavior that is intended to get something that another person has and to keep it

reactive aggression- page 215

an impulsive retaliation for another persons intentional or accidental action verbal or physical

Relational aggression-page 215

nonphyscial act such as insults or rejections aimed at harming the social connection between the vicitm and the other people

Bullying aggression-page 215

unprovoked repeated physcial or verbal attack especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves

Psychological control-page 218

a disiplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on a childs feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents

Time out-page 218

a disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people and activities for a specified time

Sex differences-page 221

Biological differences between males an dfemales in organs hormones and body shape

Gender differences-page 221

differences in the roles and behaviors that are prescribed by a culture for males and females

Phallic stage- page 222

freuds third stage of development when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure

Oedipus complex-page 222

the unconscious desire of young boys to replace their fathers and win their mothers exclusive love

Superego-page 222

in psychoanalytic theory the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents

Electra complex- page 222

the unconscious desire of girls to replace their mothers and win their fathers exclusive love

Identifiacation- page 222

an attempt to defend ones self concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else

Gender schema- page 224

a childs cognitive concept or general belief about sex differences which is based on his or her obsevations and experiences

Androgyny-page 225

a balance within one person of traditionally masculine and feminine psychological characteristics

At birth the avg. infants weighs

7 1/2 pounds

By 24 months, most children are about ____ percent of their adult height.

50 percent

Which of the following senses is the least developed at birth?

vision

An example of a fine motor skill is:

grabbing

When infants master the pincer movement, they can:

feed themselves

International health organizations recommend that mothers exclusively breast-feed for the first:

4-6 months

What is colostrum?

a thick, high-calorie fluid secreted by the woman's breasts for about the first three days following the birth of her child

Which substance is secreted from a woman's breasts for the first three days following birth?

colostrum

The experimental apparatus that gives the illusion of a sudden dropoff is referred to as a:

visual cliff

Piaget believed that object permanence emerges at about:

8 months

The results of subsequent experiments were inconsistent with the conclusions of Piaget by demonstrating that infants:

have some understanding of object permanence as young as 4½ months

Scholars have attempted to integrate theories of language development (social-pragmatic theory, innate abilities, and behaviorism) into one theory known as:

hybrid theory.

According to Chomsky's theory of language development, which factor predicts communication?

an innate ability

Which is TRUE of deaf babies and babbling

All babies, even deaf babies, babble

What accounts for the ethnic variations in the development of gross motor skills?

Cultural Patterns, Practice, and Genetics

Early sensation appears to be organized toward which two goals?

social interactions and comfort

DTaP vaccine protects against:

Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis

Breast-feeding reduce the risk of:

Cancer, asthma, diabetes and others

Piaget's cognitive development period that begins at birth and ends around age 2 is called:

Sensorimotor Intelligence

What occurs when infants change from sucking their mother's breast to sucking a pacifier?

adapatation

Stage four of sensorimotor intelligence is characterized by:

New adaptation and anticipation

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