How long did the universe take to form?
about 13 billion years
how much of the history of the universe can we see?
about 10 percent
on the cosmic calendar, how long has humankind existed?
the last few minutes
3 phases of history and how long they were
paleolithic (95 percent), agricultural era (middle), modern era (very brief)
What are the three c's of world history?
comparison, connection, and change
What was the emergence of human kind?
in Africa about 30 species emerged that were able to walk on 2 legs, and over time their brains grew larger, then made stone tools, then ate meat, and began to migrate. They discovered fire and became more and more like us
when did initial migrations take place? (what era)
the Paleolithic era
How did people start to migrate?
when the ice age hit, landbridges were formed and they moved to other continents as well as islands
Where did people first migrate to?
Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas
What happened in Eurasia during the Paleolithic era?
cave paintings and weaving, pottery, and partial underground dwellings
What happened in Australia during the Paleolithic era?
boats were found, still used hunting and gathering techniques
What happened in the Americas during the Paleolithic era?
took longer to get there, clovis culture was found all over but vanished
What were the first human societies like?
small groups of about 50 people who were hunters/gatherers who lived with little
What did Paleolithic era people do to the environment?
they altered the environment and somehow killed another breed of humans
Was there any religion in the Paleolithic era?
yes, but not understood
What happened when the Paleolithic people settled?
they settled down and became bigger and with this came better tools and agriculture
What did the Paleolithic people think of women?
they were like gods because of fertility
What is the archaeological process?
research, field work, lab analysis
direct historical approach
watching people of the same ethnicity use those objects and see what they do
study people of different cultures and how they use the specifc artifact
getting more for less; in this case more food and resources from a smaller area of land
what era came after the paleolithic?
what happened at the end of the last ice age?
weather improved so people were able to settle more
independent transition to agriculture across the globe
agricultural revolution in the fertile crescent
variety of wild plants and animals capable of domestication
A.R. in the Africa
animal domestication was better than plant domestication
A.R. in America
most animals couldn't be domesticated so in order to get protein they relied on fishing and hunting; lacked grains but ate corn, squash, and beans
what spread WITH agriculture?
What were some minuses to the A.R.?
weakness in health: tooth decay, shorter stature, shorter life expectancy, smallpox, flu, measles, chicken pox, malaria, anemia, TB, and rabies
"secondary products revolution"
involved new uses for domesticated animals beyond their meat and hides
What was the most characteristic type of agricultural society?
stateless, without any social classes
Are there any kings in the A.R.?
what is Tassili-n-Ajjer?
rock paintings of pastoralists
what is Stonehenge?
What are the 10 features of civilizations?
cities, complex religion, centralized government, job specialization, social classes, public works, art and architecture, writing, technology, cultural diffusion
What are 6 ancient civilizations?
Mesopotamia, Egypt/Nubia, Indus, Cahokia, Norte Chico, China
When did social classes and genders become important?
What did Robert Carniero suggest about how it got started?
and the smaller groups would lose against the larger ones and be taken in
What was state power like in the first civilizations?
State served to protect the priviliges of the upper classes, and could be very violent
Who were the Hyksos and what were they to the Egyptians?
enemies to Egypt, took over in the second intermediate period
Key moments in Mesopotamian history
ziggurats, umbrellas, Sargon (ruler), Inanna was a powerful goddess of the moon, Enheduanna was Sargon's daughter, Asyrians started the first library, Hammurabi ruled over babylon (First emperor)
key moments in Egypts history
Osiris and Isis and Set, Imhotep is the first pyramid builder, Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom
Old Kingdom in Egypt
first intermediate period
revolt against the pyramid building and spending
drained delta, reclaimed land in the delta, rebuilt power through pubilc works
second intermediate period
invasion and conquering by the Hyksos, but tradition still alive
rescued from Hyksos and then the Golden Age of Egypt (Ramses and King Tut)
When did the era of Egypt "end"?
What is the earliest Chinese writings written on?
a reign of a specific royal family in ancient civilizations
rule of law
following the written and spoken laws of where you live
the father of families assumes of role of the person in charge because they do more labor intensive work
society with no state
walk on two legs
can use tools
hominid who migrated
us; wise thinkers