WHAP ch 6

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monsoon

seasonal winds in the indian ocean caused by the differences in temperature between the rapidly heating & cooling landmasses of africa & asia and the slowly changing ocean waters. these strong & predictable winds have long been ridden across the open seas by sailors and the large amounts of rainfall that they deposit on parts of india SE asia, and china allow for the cultivation of several crops a year

vedas

early indian sacred "knowledge"; the literal meaning of the term; long preserved and communicated orally by Brahmin priests & eventually written down. these religious texts, including the thousand poetic hymns to various deities contained in the rid veda, are our main source of information about the vedic period (ca. 1500-500 bce)

varna

varna are the four major social divisions - brahmin priest class, kshatriya warrior/administrator class, vaishya merchant/farmer class, shudra laborer class

jati

within the varna are many jati, regional groups of people who have a common occupational spheres and who marry, eat, and typically interact with other members of their group

karma

in indian tradition, the residue of deeds performed in past and present lives that adheres to a "spirit" and determines what form it will assume in its next lifestyle. the doctrines of karma and reincarnation were used by the elite in ancient india to encourage people to accept their social position & do their duty

moksha

the hindu concept of the spirit's "liberation" from the endless cycles of rebirth. there are various avenues - such as physical discipline, meditation, and acts of devotion to the gods - by which the spirit can distance itself from desire for the things of this world and be merged with the divine force that animates the universe

samsara

cycle of death and rebirth to which life in the material world is bound; endless cycle of birth, suffering, death, & rebirth

jainism

maha vira (540-468 bce) aka jina, "the conqueror", emphasizing the holiness of the life force, they practiced strict nonviolence and ascetism

brahmins

highest class of the varna - aka comprising priests and scholars - brahmin domination challenged by religions like jainism & buddhism. hinduism preserved brahmin status & privilege but allowed worshipers to have direct contact with the supernatural

shiva

prevalent deity in the evolution of hinduism; derives from the dravidian tradition; dominant in the south; lives in ascetic isolation on mt. kailasa in the himalayas; represents creation & destruction and is often depicted dancing

vishnu

deity that prevailed in the evolution of hindusim; an arya pedigree, popular in the north of india; aka "the preserver", a benevolent deity who helps his devotees in times of need; whenever demonic force threaten the cosmic order, vishnu appears on earth as an avatara, or "incarnation". examples: legendary hero rama, popular coward-god krishna, and buddha

krishna

god from the bhagavad-gita; tutored king arjuna & taught him to fulfill his duties as a warrior. krishna reveals himself as time itself, the force behind all creation and destruction

buddha

an indian prince named siddhartha gautama, who renounced his wealth & social position. after becoming "enlightened" (the meaning of buddha), he enunciated the principles of buddhism. this doctrine evolved & spread throughout india and to SE, E, and central asia

mahayan buddhism

"great vehicle" branch of buddhism followed in china, japan, and central asia. the focus is on reverence for buddha and for bodhisattvas, enlightened persons who have postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment

theravada buddhism

"way of the elders" branch of buddhism followed in sri lanka & much of SE asia. theravada remains close to the original principles set forth by the buddha; it downplays the importance of gods and emphasized austerity and the individuals search for elightenment

hinduism

a general term for a wide variety of beliefs and ritual practices that have developed in the indian subcontinent since antiquity. hinduism has roots in ancient vedic, buddhist, and indian religious concepts & practices. it spread along the trade routes to SE asia

dravidian

of, relating to, or denoting a family of languages spoken in southern india and sri lanka, or the peoples who speak them; a language in india

sanskrit

panini developed this system of word forms & grammar. it was standardized and became a formal, literary, and administrative language

mauryan empire

the first state to unify most of the indian subcontinent. it was founded by chandragupta maurya in 324 bce and survived until 184 bce. from its capital at pataliputra in the ganges valley it grew wealthy from taxes on agriculture, iron mining, and control of trade routes

ashoka

third ruler of the mauryan empire in india (r. 273-232 bce). he converted to buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving indian writing

kautilya

a crafty elderly brahmin who guided chandra gupta in his conquests and consolidation of power. he wrote many surviving treaties on government, the artha shastra

artha-sastra

written by kautilya; in its present form it is a product of the 3rd century ce, its coldly pragmatic guide to political success & survival advocates the so called mandala theory of foreign policy; "the enemy of my enemy is my friend". it also presents schemes for enforcing & increasing the collection of tax revenues

mahabharata

a vast epid chronicling the events leading up to a cataclysmic battle between related kinship groups in early india. it includes the bhagavad-gita

bhagavad-gita

the most important work of indian sacred literature, a dialogue between the great warrior arjuna and the god krishna on duty and the fate of the spirit

tamil kingdoms

the kingdoms of southern india, inhabited primarily by speakers of dravidian, languages, which developed in partial isolation, and somewhat differently, from the arya north. they produced epics, poetry, and performance arts. elements of tamil religious beliefs were merged into the hindu synthesis

gupta empire

a powerful indian state based, like its mauryan predecessor, on a capital at pataliputra in the ganges valley. it controlled most of the indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture

sati

ritual where a widow would cremate herself on her husband's funeral pyre; it kept a woman "pure"; if she does not follow this she becomes a social outcast

funan

an early complex society in SE asia between the first & sixth centuries ce. it was centered in the rich rice growing region in southern vietnam, and it controlled the passage of trade across the malaysian isthmus

srivijaya

a powerful ncient malay empire based on the island of sumatra, modern day indonesia, which influenced much of SE asia; between the 7th and 11th centuries ce; maritime trading empire on peninsular malaysia & sumatra

borobodur

9th century mahayan buddhist monument near mageland, central java, indonesia; comprised of 6 square platforms, topped by 3 circular platforms

angkor wat

a hindu temple complex located at angkor, cambodia, built for the kind suryavarman II in the early 12th century as his state temple & part of his capital city

In the classical period, both China and India

showed considerable tolerance for different religions

Asoka's son

was a Buddhist missionary, who succeeded in converting Sri Lanka to Buddhism

Which of the following does NOT describe important features of Indian art?

Opposed to the use of animal figures

The Indian caste system served to an extent as a political institution by

enforcing rules about social behavior

In the classical period, both China and India

showed considerable tolerance for different religions

The Indian caste system served to an extent as a political institution by

enforcing rules about social behavior

The caste system of India:

held that a person's socio-economic status was hereditary

Compared to China, India

had greater contact with other societies and civilizations

Buddhism differed from Hinduism by not believing

in the caste system

Angkor Wat:

is dedicated to Vishnu, one of the major Hindu gods

India's trading network involved direct contact with all of the following EXCEPT

Russia

India's political tradition

stressed the importance of regional and local units.

The Mauryan dynasty differed from the Gupta dynasty in that

it ruled a larger territory

The Aryan peoples in India:

formed political groupings called janapadas

Which of the following does NOT describe important features of Indian art?

Opposed to the use of animal figures

The Vedic Aryans spoke

Indo-European language

According to the Vedas, the atman is

the immortal self, or essence

Which form of Buddhism became popular in China and Japan?

Mahayana Buddhism

The Mauryan Empire successfully united the entire subcontinent of India except for the southernmost region.

True

Written between the Mauryans and the early Gupta, the Laws of Manu

wrote into official law the traditional restrictions placed on women

Siddhartha Gautama articulated the "Four Noble Truths," which taught that

life is suffering, and suffering is caused by desire

One of the most sacred places for pilgrimage in Hinduism is

the Ganges River

During the Gupta period, India developed an extensive land and sea trading network by exporting what products?

Cotton cloth, ivory, and metalwork

The earliest deciphered Indian writing was

the edicts of Ashoka

Buddhism and Jainism gained popularity in the late Vedic period because

they offered insight or enlightenment as a path to salvation instead of rituals

The classical form of the Hindu temple emerged in what era?

Gupta

Which of the following best describes the Silk Road?

trade route linking the Mediterranean region to East Asia

One of the most common forms of worship in Hinduism is

doing service to a deity by feeding its statue

A significant factor in extending Gupta power structures was

a close alliance with the Brahmins in exchange for land

What factor caused a decrease in small farms in the Late Roman Republic?

The growth of latifundia and a shift to nonstaple crops

Why was becoming Christian considered an act of disloyalty in the Roman Empire?

Christians could not worship the emperor as a deity

The important Han innovations include the development of

the horse collar, the watermill, and the crossbow.

The American continents contained very few domesticated animals because

there were few species suitable for domestication.

The belief system of Rome:

centered on the emperor as a god

Compared to China, India

ad greater contact with other societies and civilizations.

Angkor Wat:

is dedicated to Vishnu, one of the major Hindu gods.

Compared to China, Indian social and economic structure

gave a stronger role to merchants

The political experience shared by India, Rome and China was:

invasion and at least partial conquest by the Hunas and by the peoples they displace

The Indian subcontinent includes all of the following areas, except:

Tibet

Since 3000 B.C.E., most invasions of India have come from the:

northwest

The Brahmins may have delayed the introduction of writing because

they were trying to protect their status within society as the keepers of knowledge

Race became an issue of class differentiation in the Vedic Age as the Aryas competed with the Dasas. The difference was that

Aryas were Indo-European and lighter skinned

Why is the Gupta Empire described as a "theater-state"?

The splendor and ceremonies of court advertised the benefits of empire

The Vedic Age was a new historical period in India marked by

the dominance of Indo-Europeans over India

Mauryan emperor Ashoka is known for all of the following EXCEPT

intolerance of others, most notably his harsh treatment of Hindus

Three harvests each year have been possible in some parts of India because of

high rainfall from the monsoons

The Vedic Age in India was notable because

the foundations for much of Indian history were established

Which of the following was NOT a reason for fostering expansion and prosperity in the post-Mauryan era?

uniform religious practices

The Srivijayan king presented himself as a bodhisattva, or

someone who had achieved enlightenment and would share his wisdom with the people

The varna system developed in order to create

social order between groups

Which statement is true about the Mauryan and Gupta Empires?

Mauryan and Gupta kings controlled the key economic aspects of society in order to construct a vast and effective infrastructure

The major reason the Mauryan Empire collapsed was

demand for resources by the administrative and military complex

Some followers of Buddhism took vows of

celibacy, nonviolence, and poverty

Southeast Asia is described as a "geologically active zone," meaning that

the islands are the tops of a chain of volcanoes

Southeast Asia first rose to prominence because

it was an intermediary in regional trade

Which of the following were not among the impressive navigational skills developed by the Malay people?

The astrolabe

Most of Southeast Asia's early commerce was conducted with

India and China

The more popular Hindu deity in the north of India is:

Vishnu

Release from the cycle of reincarnation is called

moksha

What was the greatest advantage of the Gupta Empire army?

well armed cavalry

Which of the following was true of the staus of women during the Gupta Empire?

Women of hgher status enjoyed more freedom than poor women

What is the underlying message of the cycle of reincarnation?

You are where you deserve to be

The idea of gods having avatars is demonstrated in Devi/Kali, who represents

creation and destruction

The Srivijayan kingdom was well situated to

control vital passageways for shipping

The Mauryan government united much of India after

the death of Alexander the Great

The collection of Indian poetic hymns dedicated to the various deities and describing sacred practices is the

Rig Veda

The Gupta Empire collapsed in 550 C.E.

after invasions by the Huns of Central Asia

Hinduism can be described as an evolution of the Vedic religions because

it combined Aryan and Dravidian elements

Which of the following statements best describes the regional strength of Southeast Asia relative to South and East Asia?

Southeasts Asia's economic and political importance increased whenever Silk Road trade was disrupted.

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