Introducing Psychology: Chapter 1

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Authors Schacter, Gilbert, and Wegner

What early philosopher believed that the mind is a blank slate before environmental experiences write their story?

Aristotle or John Locke

Dualism is the belief that:

the mind and body are two separate entities.

Which pioneer demonstrated through research that our mental processes could be studied with the same scientific methods used in other areas of science?

Hermann von Helmholtz

Which view of psychology emphasized the study of mental processes alone?

structuralism

Which psychologist helped bring together the views of psychology as a science of behavior and a science of mental processes?

Jean Piaget

The mind is able to function effectively in the world through the _______ nature of our psychological processes.

adaptive

Devon was planning to go to the store to buy some milk. After driving 5 miles, he realized he had gone the wrong way and was headed to his office instead of the grocery store. This type of “mind bug” demonstrates how sometimes people ______.

behave automatically relying on habits instead of paying attention to the task at hand.

In order to measure the otherwise unobservable mental processes of the mind, early scientists applied the methods of ______ to study biological processes.

physiology

By asking people to pay attention to and record their feelings and perceptions of an event, Wilhelm Wundt used the method of _______ to analyze the basic elements of the mind.

introspection

William James suggested that consciousness should be examined depending on the purpose of the mental processes involved, as suggested by _______, rather than trying to break it down into specific elements as suggested by _______.

functionalism; structuralism

Although William James and Sigmund Freud employed two very different theoretical approaches to psychology, how are their approaches similar?

Both believed that mental aberrations provide important clues into the nature of mind.

______ stresses the importance of studying observable behaviors and ignores the mental processes involved in different tasks.

Behaviorism

In Pavlov's classic experiment, the sound of a tone was the _____ that produced a ______ of salivating in dogs, even in the absence of food.

stimulus; response

Cognitive psychology addresses the problems facing behaviorism by applying scientific methods to the study of _____.

mental processes, such as memory, perception and thought

Why was the advent of the computer so important for the development of cognitive psychology?

Computers processed information through complex circuits, which showed that psychologists could study mental states scientifically as the flow of information through the mind.

________study the link between brain and behavior, sometimes by observing an organism on a specific task after performing surgery to remove certain parts of the brain.

Behavioral neuroscientists

Garret thinks human behaviors can be explained on the basis of their adaptive value over time. Which term best describes his view?

evolutionary psychology

It is important to study the social influences on mental events because_______.

people are inherently social creatures with a network of friends, family and coworkers

A city planner is finalizing plans for a new park in Chicago. A friend of hers is developing plans for a city park in Osaka, Japan. Should the same plan be used in both cities without further research?

No, the plan was based on a park in the United States, and there are cultural differences that should be accounted for when considering the usefulness and design elements for each park.

Psychologists study the internal processes and experiences of ______ by examining observable _______.

the mind; behaviors

Elizabeth believes in _____, in that she thinks people who are experts in their occupations are just born that way. No matter how hard people practice, they will never be professional athletes or expert musicians if they do not have the innate ability.

nativism

Although the overall theory was flawed, _____ was one of the first theories to propose that certain behaviors are localized in specific regions of the brain.

phrenology

Helmholtz showed that mental processes do not occur instantaneously, by having participants respond to a ______ and then recording their _______.

stimulus; reaction time

In Wertheimer's classic experiment, he demonstrated that the visual illusion of motion from a light being flashed in one of two orientations suggests that people view:

the whole rather than the sum of its parts.

Dr. Spock is interested in understanding the normal operations of the mind. A patient with dissociative identity disorder is referred to his clinic. Would this patient provide insight into the normal function of the mind?

Yes, because studying the mental disruptions associated with the disorder reveal important differences between these processes and those of a normal state.

According to Freud, the _____ influences people's thoughts, feelings, and actions without their being aware of it.

unconscious

What did NOT distinguish the humanistic psychology movement from the psychoanalytic approach?

Humanistic psychologists offered a more pessimistic view of the human condition.

Jorge is running an experiment in which rats are given chocolate when they push a lever. What is the stimulus in this experiment?

the lever

Scientists like Piaget and Lewin paved the way for ________ by renewing interest in mental events such as perception, memory, and subjective experiences.

cognitive psychology

By studying people with brain damage to certain regions of the brain, psychologists gain a better understanding that:

all cognitive processes rely on the brain.

Social psychology examines issues such as conformity, racism, and stereotyping by:

considering the effects of other people on our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.

Although cognitive processes depend on the brain, humans (and their behaviors) are also a product of the environment around them. How does cultural psychology include this influence?

It examines how behavior is influenced by the cultural values, traditions and beliefs shared by a group.

While some psychologists engage in research, many psychologists, such as __________, are involved in clinical and other work focused on helping people dealing with family or career issues.

counseling psychologists

Freud's view of human nature was largely _________, whereas the view of humanistic psychologists was largely _________.

negative; positive

Who was the first African American to receive a PhD in psychology?

Francis Cecil Sumner

Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior. Behavior refers to:

observable actions of humans and nonhuman animals.

Hermann von Helmholtz is to _________ as Wilhelm Wundt is to _________.

reaction time; structuralism

The first laboratory devoted exclusively to psychology as an independent field of study opened in:

Leipzig in 1879.

According to social psychologists, people can improve their _________ in the presence of others.

performance

Penny wanted to find out how long it would take her sister Cathy to remove her finger from the flame of a lighted match. Penny is studying what type of process?

reaction time

Mariah is a teacher and believes that all her students have an inherent need to develop, grow, and reach their full potential. Mariah's beliefs are best characterized by which approach?

humanism

Behaviorism can be called the _________ psychology.

"S-R"

Dr. O'Leary believes that most men prefer to choose young, healthy women for their life partners because so doing boosts their chances for producing healthy offspring. This outlook illustrates the _________ perspective.

evolutionary

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