region in the Fertile Crescent between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, located in modern day Turkey through Iraq to the Persian Gulf
Fertile Crescent Civilization, located in Southeastern Mesopotamia, first civilization
Epic of Gilgamesh
Narrative poem located in Sumer, first told orally that describes a great flood that destroys
The world's first civilization developed in ______, in the region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, made of a bunch of city-states
_____ developed along the rivers. Tigris and Euphrates (flood sporadically and erratically)
Villagers worked together to stop floods and provide _____. They invent dikes (levees). They also dug irrigation canals to bring water to their crops.
a city that controls the surrounding areas- Uruk and Ur (Sumer is not an empire)
Sumerian civilization invented ____.
the sumerians invented ______ as the world's first written language. It was a wet piece of clay and a scribe takes a stylus and indent into the wet clay, their symbols.
a picture (prehistory) that represents a physical item.
belief in many gods
the construction of _____ which were temples, the top of it was the actual temple to the god of the city-state. Another reason these were build was so the priest could take refuge in the temple when the rivers flooded.
Epic of Gilgamesh
Sumerians outlook on life is in the __________ written about 2000 BC
Epic of Gilgamesh
First narrative in the history of the world. About a king called Gilgamesh which was the king of Uruk. Gilgamesh is searching for immortality. Showed a negative outlook on the after-life in Sumerian people, because they always feared the flooding of the rivers.
Every empire that comes after Sumer in Mesopotamia adopts to ___
Sumerian ____ narratives are written down. Look at Epic of Gilgamesh on the powerpoint.
_____ use Sumerian learning, create calendars, develop basic algebra, and geometry.
2300 BC Sargon and Akkadians conquer the Sumerian city states and they create the first empire- _____
_____ dies and the empire collapses
Babylonians come to power after the death of _______
Most important of the Babylonian kings, he comes to power in 1790 BC
The Code of Hammurabi
not the first laws but the first time laws are written down
______ had pillars built and on each pillar he had 300 laws inscribed on the pillars and then placed them around the empire
On the top of the pillar was inscribed a drawing of Hammurabi and a _______
civil and criminal law
hammurabi had 2 types of laws
laws that dont involve crime, marriage, divorce, business
involves a crime, murder, robbery, assault
Hammurabi wants to unify his Babylonian empire, to do this he creates one god that everyone will worship called _____ he becomes the patron god of Babylon
From Asia Minor (present day Turkey), discovered that you could take a piece of ore (rock) and at the proper temp you could extract iron from it.
Bronze and Copper are _____ metals
With the iron taken from ore Hittites turned it into _____ and armor, they are able to defeat the Babylonians because they use iron weapons when other people use malleable metals.
Warlike group of people that destroyed Babylon with fire, they expand to take over Mesopotamia, Israel, Entire Fertile Crescent and Egypt. First time people take over land in two continents
A king named Assurbanipal of Assyria founded the first _____ in Ninevah and filled it with cuneiform tablets
When the Assyrians fall, the ___ _________ began
The revival of the Babylonians is called ____ _______
who revives the Babylonians?
King Nebuchadnezzar centers the empire around the city of Babylon. He builds a wall with 9 gates around the city, one of the gates still stands today, the _____ gate in present day Iraq
King Nebuchadnezzar built something called the _____ _____ of Babylon. Thought to be a Ziggurat where he planted plants and flowers on the steps.
Located in present day Iran, largest empire up to that point, included Persia, Asia Minor, Egypt, and Mesopotamia, first ruled by Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
first Persian king, expanded the Persian Empire to Asia Minor, Egypt, and Mesopotamia. Was very tolerant of other religions
Originally from Judah (Israel) Babylonians conquered Judah and they enslaved all of the ____ in Babylon. When Cyrus took over he freed them and allowed them to return home
Darius the Great
known as the empire builder, figured out a way to keep their kingdom together and small.
Darius the Great divided the empire into 30 provinces called ____ each province is ruled by a Satrap
Darius built something known as the _____ ____, connecting the city of Susa and Sardis paid for by tax dollars, also created a currier system to deliver mail. Builds a palace at the city of Persepolis
the US postal service took a quote from ______ about the Persian mail service that they use today.
traditional type of economy where no money is changing hands, just trade, Darius goes from this to a Money Economy where you actually have money to buy the goods.
Darius mints _____
Exchanges are simplified because only one party is purchasing items rather than two
money can be kept for use at a later time, whereas barter items such as live animals may not last
What religion was practiced under the Persian Empire?
Who was Zoroasterism founded by?
Monotheistic religion, one god named Ahura Mazda, he represents everything thats good in the world.
People practicing Zoroasterism believed that one day there would be a _____ day between good and evil where you would be judged for your actions
______ represents everything thats bad in the world to someone practicing Zoroasterism. Sometimes he was referred to as Angra Mainyu, where we get the word anger from.
____ and Christianity take from Zoroasterism with judgment day
Based out of Present day Lebanon and Syria. Has a cedar tree on the flag, they would use the cedar trees to make boats.
Phoenicians made boats out of cedar trees to use to trade around the ______ Sea, from spain all the way up to Britain.
city of Tyre, this is a purple dye that becomes one of the main things Phoenicians trade, they take it from a small sea snail. It becomes popular because its the royal color.
______ developed an alphabet- 22 symbols that stand for consonants. We get the word phonics from this.
The _____ are inspired by the Phoenician alphabet so they develop one and the Romans do too. This is where we get our modern English alphabet
Ruler of Akkad that invaded and conquered Sumer and expanded his territory building the first empire
King of Babylon, brought Mesopotamia under the control of his empire. Made set laws
Pushed out of Asia Minor into Mesopotamia, brought with them the major advancement of the knowledge of heat to extract iron from ore
Also learned to forge iron weapons, lived in upper Tigris, expanded their empire across Mesopotamia
Built huge empire in the Middle East, controlled a wide sweep of territory
Cyrus the Great
Persian king in Babylon, went on to build the largest empire yet seen
Emperor of the Persian empire, son of Cyrus. Skilled organizer that set up a government, developed into provinces
King of Nabopolassar, Babylon, created the new Babylonian empire which stretched from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean sea
Persian thinker, rejected old Persian gods and taught that a single wise god, Ahura Mazda, ruled the world.
"Egypt is wholly the gift of the Nile" this quote was said by _____ the father of history who wrote tons of books. He said this quote in his book about Egypt. look at powerpoint for the meaning of the quote.
Delta of the Nile is in a _____ shape that dumps into the Mediterranean Sea
a waterfall or an area of rapids on a river. At least 5 of them on the Nile. Trade is basically between the Nile Delta and the first Cataract
____ Egypt is closer to the Mediterranean
Oldest of the 3 kingdoms
First pharaoh of the Old Kingdom, he assumes power by being appointed by the gods. Unites upper and lower Egypt. Sets up the capital of Egypt as Memphis
in the Old Kingdom, ______ ruled because of Divine right, the god has given him the power to rule.
Pharaohs and Bureaucracy
The Old Kingdom was famous for ___ and _____
The Pharaoh was in charge of everything but he appoints a _____ to run the government for him like tax collection and farming.
Most famous Vizier was a guy named ______ around 2450 BC. He wrote a book called Instructions from the Vizier _______.
honest and humble
Ptah-hotep believed a government worker needed two attributes which were ___and ___
_____ _____ were built during the Old Kingdom, they were tombs for the Pharaohs so they could live eternally inside.
Original Great Pyramids were build in _____ but most famous are in Giza
Egyptian _____ built the pyramids when they were not planting and harvesting their crops
Largest of the pyramids at Giza was for a pharaoh named ____
Pyramid of Khufu is one of the most impressive of the pyramids built on the ____. Took about 20-30 years to construct.
to build the pyramid of _____ they cut stones down river then put them on the barges and floated them to the pyramid site, then unload them and make a train track with logs and make sort of like skis to roll the stones on.
The Egyptians built 100 pyramids and ____ are still around
The Old Kingdom came to an end because ____ cost a significant amount of money to build, so the government was on the verge of bankruptcy
The ___ ___ was when Egypt stretched south to Nubia and took control
Egypt pushed into Nubia because they had ____ which they needed because of their bankruptcy. They could take that and pay their army.
During the middle kingdom the Nile stopped flooding every spring like normal, this sent Egypt into a ____.
_____ gets blamed for the drought during the middle kingdom and enters into a period of anarchy in Egypt
in about 1700 BC the ___ come in and take control of Egypt
From Canaan which is present day Israel, the belief is that they were descendants of Jacob
The Hyskos took control of Egypt using a ___ ____. They only rule for 100 years.
The ____ got war chariots from the Hyskos
When the Hyskos were defeated by the Egyptians they entered into the ____ ______
New Kingdom was the age of _____. This is when Egypt expands to its greatest extent.
Egypt regains control of ____, then Canaan and Syria, this is when they are at their largest.
Egypt begins to trade, they rebuilt their trade routes with ____ and the Island of Crete
Her husband Thutmose II died, has a stepson from him, Thutmose III. Hes too young to rule so she takes over as Pharaoh and dresses as a man, used a fake beard, her and the stepson were co-regents. Technically he was the ruler but she took over the duties
Is Pharaoh when Egyptian empire reaches its greatest extent. Stepson of Hatshepsut.
Goes to war with the Hittites of Asia minor (first to develop the use of iron in weapons and first use of chariots). He fails to defeat and is in a stalemate. He is responsible for the first peace treaty in history. Egyptians and Hittites "shall be at peace and in brother-hood forever"
During the Old Kingdom, Egyptians worshiped a god by the name of ____ (sun god) a depiction of him is always the sun.
During the middle and new kingdome they began to worship a god by the name of ____. Depiction of him on page 50. He is when Re takes on a human form instead of being just the sun
____ was a Pharaoh in ancient Egypt. He was married to Isis but because of jealousy his brother Set killed him and cut him into little pieces. He threw the pieces into the Nile, Isis collects all of his pieces and puts them back together. Since he is dead he cannot continue to rule the world of the living so he becomes god of the Underworld.
_______ becomes the New Pharaoh when his father dies, he believes everyone should be worshiping the god Aton. Aton was depicted as the sun with rays. He believed they should worship Aton instead of Re. Struggle between church and state. Amenhotep changes his name to Akhenaton which means one who serves Aton.
The Egyptian Book of the Dead was written to explain what happened to you in the ____. Slide 59
Egyptian preparation for the afterlife, slide 59
Akhenaton's son. When Akhenaton died _____ put the power back to Amon-Re. Gained power when he was 9, died at 19, married his sister, dont know how he died. Was not buried in a pyramid but in a place called valley of kings, very remote place
When people took places over they would raid the pyramids and steal all of the treasure, but since ____ wasnt buried in a pyramid, nobody ever looted him. Found by Howard Carter in 1922
____ has two classes: Pharaohs and nobles and priests then peasants/farmers
____ has 3 classes: Pharaohs, nobles, and priests; Merchants and Artisans; Peasants and Farmers.
Egypt became a ____ society meaning the men had a bigger role
_____ is alot more Patriarchal than Egypt. They were in a constant war, the only people that could serve were men. Prisoners of war that were turned into slaves were women.
Because Egypt was a lot more stable they were less ____. Women were allowed to be priestesses, women could own property in Egypt, they could file for divorce.
Sumerians had the first written language, ____.
Egyptian writing system, a symbol or a picture that represents an object, concept, or sound. Papyrus was a weed that grows in the banks of the Nile, realized they could turn it into a paper like product and write on it. Had to be a true artist to do this
a simplified version of hieroglyphics
more simplified version of hieroglyphics, slang
Discovered by Jean Champolion, 3 different pieces, top written in Hieroglyphics, middle in demotic script, bottom in Greek. He could read Greek so he translated the rest. It was a series of laws from Ptolomey IV
Egyptians made advances in ______ medicine. They developed crutches, pictures show them being used to see a doctor, also a picture of a man with an artificial toe
The Egyptians also developed the ____ because of the flooding of the Nile. It was 12 months of 30 days which was 360 days so they added 5 more at the end of the year
Egyptians were big on _____. Akenaton's wife Nefertiti is a good example of this, always facing forward and straight faced.
statue art on a grand scale- found in Giza in front of the Pyramids. It is a Pharaoh with the body of a lion.
Belief in one god
ancient Israelites are also known as _____
Hebrews god was _____
Are Hebrews monotheistic or polytheistic?
what was the ancient Isrealites sacred text?
Made up of the first five books of the old testament Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy
Hebrew's collection of laws
Considered the father of the Israelites and Hebrews
From the descendants of _____ (son of Abraham) we get the twelve tribes of Israel
Abraham had a second son with Hagar named ______. His descendants are the 10 Arabian tribes and Islam comes from him.
Abraham was from the city-state of _____ and then ends up in Canaan
_____ makes a covenant with Yahweh
God promises Abraham two things: Promise land- ______, and for them to be called the Chosen People
Why did the Israelites move from Canaan to Egypt?
When Moses lead his people out of Egypt and back to Canaan
Moses received the 10 commandments where?
Who unified the 12 tribes of Egypt into one unified empire?
King David's son who constructed the Temple of Jerusalem, and made it into a world class city
Arc of the Covenant
What was held in King Solomon's temple
King Solomon paid for the construction in Jerusalem by _____
After king ______ dies, high taxes and unrest the kingdom of Israel splits into two
The kingdom of Judah formed in the _____
Kingdom of Israel formed in the ______
_____ destroy the Kingdom of Israel in 722 BC
Judah is destroyed in 587 BC by ______
King Nebuchadnezzar enslaves the _____ and takes them back to Babylonia. becomes known as the Babylonian captivity
_____ was the main religion in Babylon in the time of the captivity
The Hebrews got freed from Babylonian captivity from the ______-Cyrus. They go back to Canaan after their freedom.
male dominated society. Coincides in 3000 BC with the rise of the first civilizations. Existed with the first civilizations- Hebrews were this.
laws Yahweh gave Moses on Mt. Sinai after the exodus. Laws for the Jewish people. Thou shall have no other gods before me.
Personal beliefs, right and wrong
Rich shall help the poor, helping out the less fortunate.
Starting with the Babylonian Captivity, the Hebrew people were spread out all over the place, that is how the religion was spread.By spreading out the people you spread the religion.