1. Agricultural Revolutions
The change from food gathering to food production that occurred between ca. 8000 and 2000 B.C.E. Also known as the Neolithic Revolution
Collective name of a large group of Sub-Saharan African languages and of the people speaking these languages.
A religion that originated in India and was created by Buddha. This religion eventually spread to China, Burma, Japan, Tibet, and parts of southeast Asia. Their teachings include the fact that life is full of suffering caused by desire and that the way to end this suffering is through enlightenment that enables one to stop the endless sequence of births and deaths to which one is otherwise subject.
: City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the 3rd century B.C.E.
The first major urban civilization in South America (900-250 B.C.E.). This place became politically and economically dominant in a densely populated region that included 2 distinct ecological zones, the Peruvian coastal plain, and the Andean foothills
The religion based on the person and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, based on the Bible as sacred scripture
A small, independent state consisting of an urban center and the surrounding agricultural territory. A characteristic political form in early Mesopotamia, Archaic and Classical Greece, Phoenicia, and early Italy.
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, respect for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
: A system of writing in which wedge-shaped symbols represented words or syllables. It originated in Mesopotamia and was used initially for Sumerian and Akkadian but later was adapted to represent other languages of western Asia. Because so many symbols had to be learned, literacy was confined to a relatively small group of administrators and scribes.
Chinese school of thought, originating in the Warring states period with Laozi (604-531 B.C.E.). It offered an alternative to the Confucian emphasis on hierarchy and duty. Daoists believed that the world is always changing and is devoid to absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from the Dao or "path" of nature
A Greek word meaning "dispersal," used to describe the communities of a given ethic group living outside their homeland
People who support themselves by hunting wild animals and gathering wild edible plants and insects.
A system of writing in which pictorial symbols represented sounds, syllables, or concepts. It was used for official and monumental inscriptions in ancient Egypt. It took a long time to learn and master this system, and so literacy in hieroglyphics was confined to a relatively small group of scribes and administrators.
In antiquity (ancient times), the land between the eastern shore of the Mediterranean and the Jordan River, occupied by the Israelites from the early second millennium B.C.E. This place was founded in 1948.
A set of syllabic symbols used primarily for palace records, and the surviving Linear B tablets provide substantial information about the economic organization of Mycenaean society and tantalizing clues about political, social, and religious institutions.
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control
mandate of heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, according to which it was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China to take away that power if the ruler failed to conduct himself justly and in the best interests of his subjects.
: The area spanning approximately from central Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua, where diverse pre-Columbian civilizations were formed.
An ancient region in western Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Prosperous civilizations on the Aegean island of Crete in the 2nd millennium B.C.E. They engaged in far-flung commerce around the Mediterranean and exerted powerful cultural differences on the early Greeks.
Belief in the existence of a single divine entity
: Site of a fortified palace complex in Southern Greece that controlled a Late Bronze Age Kingdom
An empire extending from western Iran to Syria-Palestine, conquered by the Assyrians of Northern Mesopotamia between the tenth and seventh centuries B.C.E. They used force and terror and exploited the wealth and labor of the subjects. They also preserved and continued the cultural and scientific developments of Mesopotamian civilizations.
The period of the Stone Age associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolution(s). It follows the Paleolithic period.
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., these people central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction. They had great cultural influence on later Mesoamerican societies, passing on artistic styles, religious imagery, a sophisticated astronomical observation for the construction of calendars, and a ritual ball game.
A reed that grows along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. From it was produced a coarse, paper-like writing medium used by the Egyptians and many other peoples in the ancient Mediterranean and Middle East.
People who practiced herding, which was the main economic activity in their society.
The central figure in the ancient Egyptian state. Believed to be an earthly manifestation of the gods, he used his absolute power to maintain the safety and prosperity of Egypt.
: Semitic-speaking Canaanites living on the coast of modern Lebanon and Syria in the first millennium B.C.E. Their merchants and sailors explored the Mediterranean, engaged in widespread commerce, and founded Carthage and other colonies in the western Mediterranean.
The doctrine of or belief in more than one god or in many gods.
Third ruler of the Persian Empire (r. 521-486 B.C.E.). He crushed the widespread initial resistance to his rule and gave all major government posts to Persians rather than to Medes. He established a system of provinces and tribute, began construction of Persepolis, and expanded Persian control in the east (Pakistan and west (northern Greece).
A religion originating in ancient Iran with the prophet Zoroaster. It centered on a single benevolent deity--Ahuramazda—who engaged in a twelve-thousand-year struggle with demonic forces prevailing and restoring a pristine world. Emphasizing truth0telling, purity, and reverence for nature, the religion demanded that humans choose sides in the struggle between good and evil. Those whose good conduct indicated their support of Ahuramazda would be rewarded in the afterlife. Others would be punished. The religion of Achaemenid and Sassanid Persians, it may have spread within the realms and influenced Judaism, Christianity, and other faiths.
A heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation. Hoplite armies-militias composed of middle- and upper-class citizens supplying their own equipment- were for centuries superior to all other military forces.
A system of government in which all "citizens" (however defined) have equal political and legal rights, privileges, and protections, as in the Greek city-state of Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E.
Heir to the technique of historia-"investigation"-developed by Greeks in the late Archaic period. He came from a Greek community in Anatolia and traveled extensively, collecting information in western Asia and the Mediterranean lands. He traced the antecedents of and chronicled the Persian Wars between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, thus originating the Western tradition of historical writing
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.( Through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon (490 B.C.E.) and the defeat of Xerxes' massive invasion of Greece by the Spartan-led Hellenic League (480-479 B.C.E.) This first major setback for arms launched the Greeks into their period of greatest cultural productivity. Herodotus chronicled these events in the first "history" in the Western tradition
Athenian philosopher (ca. 470-398 B.C.E.) who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior. He attracted young disciples from elite families but made enemies by revealing the ignorance and pretensions of others, culminating in his trial and execution by the Athenian state.
: Historians' term for the era, usually dated 323-30 B.C.E., in which Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great. The period ended with the fall of the last major *********** kingdom to Rome, but Greek cultural influence persisted until the spread of Islam in the seventh century C.E.
City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt founded by Alexander. It became the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of the Ptolemies. It contained the famous Library and the Museum-a center for leading scientific and literary figures. Its merchants engaged in trade with areas bordering the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean.
King of Macedonia in northern Greece, Between 334 and 323 B.C.E., he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East.
New Stone Age
Mesopotamian writing system
Mandate of Heaven
A political and religious belief that suggests a ruler wil maintain power as long as he is just and acts in the best interest of the people
Yellow River (Yangzi)
One of the great river systems of eastern China
A Neolithic town that was located in what is now Turkey
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
The name of the two rivers that form the "fertile crescent"
Mohenjo-Daro and Harrapa
The two main cities of early Indian civilization
They established the first advanced civilizations on the Greek mainland
The name of the modern day country where Mesopotamia was located
The possession of these types of objects was a sign of authority and nobility
The CHINESe concern over the orientation of objects and buildings
A new political philosopy that maintained that human nature is essentially wicked and that people behave in an orderly fashion only if compelled by strict laws and harsh punishments
Confucianism originated in this country
The capital of the Middle and New Kingdoms of Egypt
These particles suspended in the water give the Yellow River its distinctive hue and name
Mesopotamia possessed this commodity in abundance
They were the earliest political and economic influence on Nubia
Law of Hammurabi
This Babylonian leader developed on the of the earliest law codes
"The Gift of the Nile"
The earliest documented people of Mesopotamia
Wheat or Millet
One of the staple crops in the northern region of China during the early part of China's history
The Shang rulers used this to determine the will of the gods
Before coming to power, Zhou was a dependent state in this river valley
A Mesopotamian temple that was a multistory, mud-brick, pyramid-shaped tower
The Shang Dynasty was defeated by Wu, the ruler of this independent state. (?)