US History Ch. 2

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test: antislavery movement- reconstruction

the liberator

name of the antislavery paper published by william lloyd garrison

reforms of antislavery movement

education
helping poor
temperance movement
human treatment of mentally ill
women's movement
american colonization society
abolitionists and absolutism

sarah and angelina grimke

women abolitionists (sisters) from wealthy family in South Carolina; move to Boston
1st women to speak publicly to audience with men and women
firsthand experience with slavery

harriet tubman

african american abolitionist often called "black moses"
led slaves to freedom on Underground railroad

frederick douglass

african american abolitionist who escaped from slavery; great writer/speaker -- great black leader
gave testimony about slavery to large crowds

north star

abolitionist newspaper started by frederick douglass in Rochester, NY

moral arguments of abolitionists

convince northerners and southerners that slavery=morally wrong and sinful
large rallies with persuasive speakers
distributed abolitionist pamphlets

political action

abolitionists took _ _, using Northern legislatures, petitions to congress, and election of sympathetic members of congress in order to make their opinions known

1850

there were limited achievements made during antislavery movement until this date

10%

what percent of northern whites approved abolitionism wholeheartedly? (20% more were sympathetic to goals)

original US

territory outlined by treaty of paris, 1783
Mississippi river on west, canada on north, florida on south

louisiana purchase

1803, bought by jefferson from france for $15 million; territory west of Mississippi river

florida

territory gained by Transcontinental treaty, 1819
James Monroe purchased from Spain, $5 million

adams-onis treaty

1819, treaty between Adams, secretary of state, and Onis, Spanish counterpart, acquiring florida for US
1 problem: US had to give up Texas, as Mexico was still part of Spanish Empire and Texas belonged to them

texas

1845, territory annexed by agreement/ republic of _; long process:
1821: Mexican war of Independence
1836: _ gains independence from Mexico; Sam Houston as leader; independent nation for 9 years
James K. Polk brings _ into Union
US acquisition strains relationship with Mexico

Andrew Jackson

this president did not want to add another slave state to the union, so he did not annex texas during his presidency. (However, James K. Polk did later)

oregon

_ country was added to the US by treaty with great britain (US and GB compromise and agree to split territory)
Before, jointly occupied by both countries (1818-1846); President was James K. Polk
US did not get entire _-- some northerners angry because Polk got all of Texas, a slave state

James K. Polk

president when US gained oregon country, mexican cession, and texas

thomas jefferson

president who bought louisiana purchase from france

james monroe

president who purchased florida from spain

54 40' and fight

the treaty with great britain in 1846 prevented a war over oregon country in which this would have been the war slogan

oregon trail

famous trail that goes from missouri to oregon

mexican cession

territory acquired by treaty of guadalupe-hidalgo, 1848, US paid Mexico $15 million
President was James K. Polk

treaty of guadalupe-hidalgo

treaty between Mexico and US ending Mexican-American War in 1848
US gained Mexican cession territory

gadsden purchase

president franklin pierce purchased from mexico, $10 million
gadsden was representative to mexico;
this purchase was associated to building the transcontinental railroad

transcontinental railroad

transportation route connecting the east and west; debated over where it should begin (economic benefits for chosen region)
Ends up starting in North after South leaves Union

alaska

1898, purchase from Russia
US pays $7 million; president Andrew Johnson; great purchase (oil, gold, minerals)

andrew johnson

president who purchased alaska from russia in 1898

hawaii

1898, purchased by president william mckinley
had been independent nation; wanted by US because of location

william mckinley

president who bought hawaii and puerto rico

puerto rico

1898, acquired by treaty of paris; ends spanish-american war
not a state!! citizens receive military protection and aid, but don't have to pay taxes

manifest destiny

Starting in 1840s, belief that westward expansion was justified by the "divine mission" of Americans to spread their superior values and institutions to the rest of the continent

James K Polk

elected in 1844 promising to expand borders

texas

territory added in 1845

oregon country

territory added in 1846

mexican cession

territory added in 1848

california

territory added in 1850

gadsden purchase

territory added in 1853

northwest ordinance

1787, stated that Slavery was prohibited north of the Ohio River (no one thought plantations would be set up there/ southerners thought slavery was dying); Congress made law stating that state had to have 60,000 people living to become a state

missouri compromise

Issue: Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. this agreement provided that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state.
Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri (36 30') stating that except for Missouri, all states north of the line would be free states

wilmot proviso

1846, During Mexican American War (1846-48), Dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or a slave territory. Representative David Wilmot introduced an amendment stating that any territory acquired from Mexico would be free. Passed the House; defeated in senate.
Reflects desire for white economic opportunity in west... symbol of how intense the dispute over slavery was in US between north and south

free soil party

1848, party created consisting of northerners who don't want slaves in the west

southern response to wilmot proviso

southerners were furious because of the proposal of no slavery in the west... argued:
western land belongs to all states
southerners have right to bring slaves into new territory; congress has no authority to say otherwise
anger towards abolitionists/ northerners in general

harriet beecher stowe

1852, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin

Uncle Tom's Cabin

written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
had dramatic impact on public opinion; many northerners shift position regarding slavery
New beliefs: slavery= unjust and cruel; still thought govt. couldn't interfere with slavery in south, but believed it shouldn't spread west

kansas nebraska act

1854, Repeals Missouri Compromise (slavery now allowed above line)
creates 2 new territories; popular sovereignty determined fate of slavery in each (only way southerners agreed to this act)
Kansas erupts in bloody conflict- "Bloody kansas"

compromise of 1850

Agreement stating...
california to be added as a free state
southwestern territories= popular sovereignty
as of 1850, kansas was unorganized territory

whig party

this party dissolves in 1854 because of K-N act and possibility of slavery expansion
Republican party emerges soon after

southerners' fears by 1850

growing power of national govt.
republican party gaining control of national government

john brown's raid on harper's ferry

Virginia, Oct. 1859
John Brown, radical abolitionist, planned to take over US arsenal at harper's ferry and distribute weapons to local slaves; march south and set off slave rebellion
Failure. met by armed townspeople; execution
Reaction: many northerners upset; some viewed as martyr. southerners traumatized- blame republicans
This intensifies sectionalism and sets tone for election of 1860

election of 1860

this upcoming event made southerners very anxious; feared election of republican and threatened secession
4 candidates:
Stephen Douglass (N Democrat)
John Bell (S Democrat)
Constitutional Union Party
Abraham Lincoln (Republican)

Abraham Lincoln

Elected President, 1860
"self-made," lawyer, on state legislature and 1 term in Congress (Whig Party member)
Transition to Republican party- hated slavery; believed all people deserved natural rights; everyone should be able to rise as far as talents permitted
On National Govt: thought govt. didn't have right to interfere with slavery in South but should prevent expansion
Hoped for gradual emancipation

secession crisis

1860-1861
southerners thought they could secede if northerners violated compact (and claimed that they did)

fugitive slave act

1850, act stating that southerners could catch slaves in free states and that northerners had to cooperate and return slaves
Southerners claimed that northerners did not follow this act

dred scott decision

1857, southerners claim that northerners did not obey this decision (ruling of a court case between slave and master) stating that Congress could not prohibit slavery in territories

south carolina

december 1860, first state to secede from the union with a unanimous vote
6 other states followed early 1861

confederate states of america

feb. 1861, formed by states who seceded from the union
Delegates met in Montgomery, AL
Jefferson Davis was president

jefferson davis

president of the confederate states of america
Former senator from mississippi and served as secretary of war

crittenden compromise

southerner from KY proposed that govt. extend the 36 30' line and allow slavery below it; southerners in congress (who didn't secede) support it. Lincoln argued against it and convinced republicans not to vote for it. (compromise failed)

causes of civil war

slavery; abolitionists heighten tensions; incompatible civilizations (south felt their way of life was threatened by govt. led by republicans); north goes to war to save the union

1861-1865

dates of civil war

fort sumter

april 1861; first battle of civil war in Charleston, SC; this fort falls to the confederates; no deaths; northern commander surrendered

richmond, va

capital of CSA moved from montgomery, al to here after 4 more states, including VA and TN, seceded

save the union

lincoln and northern states initially wage war to...

1862

as of this date, the south was winning more battles than the north. northerners begin to rethink purpose of the war

war for human freedom

lincoln's transformation regarding purpose of war... after 1862 he believes the purpose of the war is this

emancipation proclamation

Jan. 1863, Lincoln issues this proclamation freeing all slaves

battle of bull run

June 1861, northern VA
1st major battle of civil war
Southerners force Union troops to flee; Northerners are humiliated and all realize that the civil war will be a long, bloody conflict

battle of antietam

Maryland, September 1862
Bloodiest battle; south hoped for victory to earn British and French aid
Costly victory for union-- Lee and South retreat to Va

preliminary emancipation proclamation

september 1862, Lincoln issues this after the battle of antietam
states the willingness to keep slavery if it saved the Union; if CSA did not return to the Union, slaves would be freed
Slaves did not agree to this (thought they could win the war and preserve way of life)

battle of gettysburg

July 1863; Lee invades North thinking CSA will become own Union and get British aid
Union anticipates Lee's arrival; Lee orders "Pickett's Charge"-- huge victory for north
turning point of war (Lee running low on supplies and troops)

ulysses s. grant

appointed commander of the North after battle of gettysburg; Union had made mistake of not pursuing Lee, but this commander was known for his relentless attacks on the south

appomattox courthouse

April 1865, Lee surrenders to Grant at this place

john wilkes booth

assassinates lincoln 2 months after gettysburg

consequences of civil war

property damage in the south
slaves are freed; southerners lose $2 billion of slave property
union is saved
620,000 americans died (2% of pop.)
legacy of bitterness in both regions (south blamed north; north angry abut huge number of casualties)

reconstruction

1865-1877
southern states restored to proper place in Union under some restrictions
Period of reform; republicans rule nationally and in South; south treated mildly

congress or president

the big question during reconstruction... who should carry out the reformation during this time?

andrew johnson

democratic president after lincoln; not a strong leader; believed it was president's job to carry out reconstruction (easy on south) but Congress thought it was their job (angry about what took place in south after war)
impeached by republicans but won trial in senate, so wasn't removed from office

13th amendment

1865, amendment that abolished slavery

14th amendment

1868, amendment stating that states cannot deny people citizenship
guarantees 2 things:
equal protection of law (prevents racial discrimination before law) and due process of law
protects blacks and prohibits south from unfair treatment

due process of law

idea guaranteed by 14th amendment that everyone is entitled to a lawyer and trial; innocent until proven guilty

15th amendment

1870, amendment giving Black males (not women) right to vote

legacy of reconstruction

southern whites bitter esp. towards blacks voting for republicans
former slaves felt expectations were not met
hoped to receive white's land, 40 acres & a mule
(some radical republicans wanted to do this)

sharecropping

replaces slavery-- whites need labor, blacks have some power-- compromise:
system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land
Merchants- 50% interest rates; force sharecroppers to grow cotton (price/bale goes down and sharecroppers fall into cycle of debt)

democratic party

this party dominates the south for almost 100 yrs

republican party in south

consists of: former slaves, southern whites who disagreed with democrats, northern whites who came south

carpetbaggers

northern whites who came south for opportunity
south thinks all these people have is the clothes they can carry in a carpet bag; believe they are trying to exploit the south

violence and economic pressure

tactics used by democrats against republicans

ku klux klan

violent group of radical democrats who targeted those who voted for republicans
used lynching, fires, and other means of destruction

economic pressure

tactic used by democrats that was even more effective than violence; no secret ballot, so democrats threatened blacks and others who voted for republicans

antislavery movement

1820-1860 part of antebellum reform movement fueled by religious revival

second great awakening

a time of religious revival
preachers called upon to repent; camp meetings
message: Christians must also work to remove sin/improve their society
fueled antislavery movement

education

antislavery movement reform
US _ improved greatly; went from behind Europe to ahead
Improvements in facilities, longer school years, updating curriculum, training for teachers

high illiteracy rates

no public education in the south until after civil war; accounts for the _____ in the south

temperance movement

growing concern for use of alcohol, especially women fear drunk men
this was an organized movement in support of moderating the use of alcohol
some success by 1860; some states ban use

maine

first state to ban use of alcohol in 1852; other states followed

mentally ill

these people did not receive humane treatment, especially from poor families
put in prison, locked up, whipped, mistreated

Dorothy Dix

Mass. teacher exposed to the horror of the mistreatment mentally ill received
gave talks and set up 1st mentally ill hospital

Women's movement

1840, women begin to stand up for their rights
2nd class citizens; judged to be physically, intellectually, and emotionally incapable in the "public arena"
only suited for management of home life

women's rights convention

1848, NY, attended by women and some men;
Seneca falls declaration-- proof of rights denied to women

susan b. anthony, elizabeth cady stanton

2 women who pushed for women's right to vote (_, _)

Massachusetts

this was the first state to abolish slavery

american colonization society

1816, gradual emancipation of slaves
end slavery in south in mild way; compensation for slaves owners
colonization of african americans in liberia; 20K free blacks sent over
this had many problems and ultimately failed

james monroe, john marshall

leaders of the american colonization society
(_, _)

failure of american colonization society

3 problems: (led to failure in 1820s)
not enough money
slave owners didn't want to free slaves
slaves didn't want to leave, only want equal rights

william lloyd garrison

radical abolitionist, published paper in Boston, 1831. Points:
immediate abolition
no compensation or colonization
citizenship and full rights for blacks
full equality for women

american antislavery society

1833, formed by William Lloyd Garrison
embodies ideas of abolitionists and absolutism

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