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When you purchase a personal computer, it usually has a ______ ______ installed on its hard disk.

system software

System Software

consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices

Two types of System Software are:

operating systems and utility programs

Operating Systems (OS)

a set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources

Some operating systems allow users to control a ______ and administer _______.

network; security

In most cases, the OS resides on the computer's ____ ____.

hard disk

On handheld computers and many mobile devices such as smart phones, the OS may reside on a _____ chip.

rom

A ______ computer does not use the same operating system as a personal computer.

mainframe

Platform

the operating system that a computer uses

Cross-Platform Program

one that runs the same on multiple operating systems

Booting

the process of starting or restarting a computer

Cold Boot

when you are turning on a computer that has been powered off completely

Warm Boot

the process of using the operating system to restart a computer

A warm boot properly closes any running programs but does not _____ any ______ work.

save;unsaved

Kernel

the core of an OS that manages memory and devices, maintains the computer's clock, starts programs, and assigns the computer's resources , such as devices programs, data, and info

The kernel is _____ ______, which means it remains in memory while the computer is running.

memory resident

Other parts of the OS are _______, that is, these instructions remain on a storage medium until they are needed.

nonresident

The boot process, is _____ for small and large computers.

similar

Registry

several files that contain the system configuration information

Startup Folder

a list of programs that open automatically when you boot the computer

Boot Drive

the drive from which your personal computer boots, in most cases drive c

Boot Disk/ Recovery Disk

contains a few system files that will start the computer

When you purchase a computer, it usually includes a boot disk in the form of an ______ ______.

optical disc

Shut Down Options

powering off the computer, placing the computer in sleep mode, and hibernating the computer

Both _____ mode and ______, which store the current state of all open programs and documents, are designed to save time when you resume working on the computer.

sleep; hibernate

Sleep Mode

saves any open documents and programs to RAM, turns off all unneeded functions, and then places the computer in a low-power state

Hibernate

saves any un open documents and programs to a hard disk before removing power from the computer

User Interface

controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen

Two Types of Interfaces

graphical and command-line

Graphical User Interface (GUI)

what most users today work with, you interact with menus and visual images such as buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands

Some GUI Operating Systems provide access to _________ interfaces.

command-line

Windows Aero

provides an enhanced visual look, additional navigation options, and animation

Command-Line Interface

when a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard to enter data and instructions

___________ interfaces, give a user more control to manage detailed settings.

command-line

Command Language

the set of commands entered into the computer

Single User/Single Tasking OS

allows only one user to run one program at a time

Early systems were ______ ______/ ______ ______.

single user; single tasking

_____ _______ and other _______ devices, often use a Single User/ Single Tasking OS.

smart phones; mobile

Single User/ Multitasking OS

allows a single user to work on two or more programs that reside in memory at the same time

In a Single User/ Multitasking OS, both programs can run __________, and users today typically run multiple programs _________.

concurrently; concurrently

Foreground

the active program you are currently using

Background

the other programs running but not in use

Some Operating Systems use _________ multitasking to prevent any one process from monopolizing the computer's resources.

preemptive

Preemptive Multitasking

when the operating system interrupts a program that is executing and passes control to another program waiting to be executed

An Advantage of Preemptive Multitasking

the operating system regains control if one program stops operating properly

Multiuser OS

enables two or more users to run programs simultaneously

Networks, serves, mainframes, and supercomputers allow hundreds to thousands of users to connect at the same time, and thus are _______.

multiuser

Multiprocessing OS

supports two or more processors running programs at the same time, involves the coordinated processing of programs by more than one processor, and increases a computer's processing speed

Fault-Tolerant Computer

continues to operate when one of its components fails, ensuring that no data is lost

Fault Tolerant Computers have _______ components such as processors, memory, and disk drives.

duplicate

Airline Reservation Systems, Communication Networks, Automated Teller Machines, and other systems that must be operational at all times use ____________ computers.

fault-tolerant

The Purpose of Memory Management

to optimize the use of random access memory (ram)

Virtual Memory

the os allocates a portion of storage medium, usually the hard disk, to function as additional ram

Because _____ memory is slower than RAM, users may notice the computer slowing down while it uses _____ _______.

virtual; virtual memory

Swap File

the area of the hard disk used for virtual memory, swaps data, information, and instructions between memory and storage

Page

the amount of data and program instructions that can swap at a given time

Paging

the technique of swapping items between memory and storage, very time consuming for the computer

When an OS spends much of its time paging, instead of executing application software, is is said to be _______.

thrashing

Windows ReadyBoost

can allocate available storage space on removable flash memory devices as additional memory cache

A task, or job, is an operation the ______ manages.

processor

Tasks

receiving data from an input device, processing instructions, sending information to an output device, and transferring items to storage to memory and from memory to storage

A ______ ______ ______ does not always process tasks on a first-come, first-serve basis.

multiuser operating system

Buffer

a segment of memory or storage in which items are placed while waiting to be transferred from an input device or to an output device

The Operating System commonly uses ______ with printed documents.

buffers

Spooling

the process that sends documents to be printed to a buffer instead of sending them immediately to the printer

Queue

when multiple documents line up in the buffer

Print Spooler

a program that intercepts documents to be printed from the operating system and places them in the queue

Driver (Device Driver)

a small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device

Each device on a computer, such as the mouse,keyboard, monitor, or printer, requires their on specific ______.

driver

Plug and Play

the operating system automatically configures new devices as you install them

Operating Systems typically provide a means to establish ________ connections.

internet

Performance Monitor

a program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devices

Automatic Update

a feature that automatically provides updates to the program

Bugs

errors

Service Pack

many software makers provide this which is free downloadable updates to users who have registered and/or activated their software

Server Operating System

an operating system that organizes and coordinated how multiple users access and share resources on a network

Examples of Resources

hardware, software, data and information

Some Operating Systems have ______ features built into them, while in others, the server operating system is a set of programs _______ from the OS on the client computers that access the network.

network; separate

When NOT connected to the network, the client computers use ____ _____ operating system.

their own

Network Administrator

the person overseeing the network operations, who uses the server operating system to add and remove users, computers, and other devices to and from the network

The Network Administrator also uses the ______ Operating System to install software and administer network security.

server

Administrator Account

enables computer and network administers to access all files and programs on the computer or network, install programs, and specify settings that affect all users on a computer or network

Permissions

define who can access certain resources and when they can access those resources

Log On

through the user account where the user can access a computer or network

User Name or User ID

a unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet, or numbers, that identifies one specific user

Password

a private combination if characters associated with the user name that allows access to certain computer resources

To protect sensitive data and information further as it travels over a network, the operating system may ______ it.

encrypt

Encryption

process of encoding data and information into an unreadable form

Many of the first operating systems were _______ _______ and proprietary.

device dependent

Device Dependent Program

runs only a specific type or make of the computer

Propriety Software

privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model

Device Independent Operating Systems

operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers

The Advantage of Independent Operating Systems

you can retain existing application software and data files even if you change computer models or venders

When you purchase a new computer or mobile device, it typically has an ______ ______ preinstalled.

operating system

Purchasing an operating system upgrade usually costs ______ than purchasing the entire operating system.

less

The Application Software may or may not be ________compatible, meaning it may or may not run on new versions of the operating system

upward

Three Basic Categories of OS

stand alone, server, embedded

Stand Alone OS

a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile computing device

Some Stand Alone OS are called _______ _______ _________ because they also work in conjunction with a server operating system.

client operating systems

Client Operating Systems can operate ____ or _______ a network.

with; without

Examples of Currently Used Stand Alone OS

windows 7, mac os x, unix, linux

Windows 7

microsoft's fastest, most efficient operating system to date

Gadget/ Widget

mini-program with minimal functionality that connects to another program or provides information, example: calendar

Mac OS X

multitasking operating system available only for computers manufactured by apple

Macintosh OS

set the standard for operating system ease of use and has been the model for most of the new gui's developed for non macintosh systems

UNIX

multitasking operating system developed in the early 1970's by scientists at Bell Laboratories

Although some versions of UNIX have a command line interface, most versions of UNIX offer a ________ user interface.

graphical

______ users often work with UNIX because of its flexibility and power.

power

Linux

(one of the faster growing operating systems) introduced in 1991, a popular, multitasking unix-type operating system

Linux is not a ________ software.

proprietary

Linux is an ______ _______ software, which means its code is provided for use, modification, and redistribution

open source

Some of these stand-alone operating systems do include networking capability; however, ______ operating systems are designed to specifically support all ______ of networks including medium to large sized businesses and Web Servers.

server; sizes

Windows Server 2008

an upgrade to windows 2003

Windows Server 2008 Family

windows server 2008 standard, windows server 2008 enterprise, windows server 2008 datacenter, windows web server 2008, and windows server 2008 for itanium-based systems

Windows Server 2008 Standard

for the typical small to medium sized business network

Windows Server 2008 Enterprise

for medium to large sized businesses, including those with e-commerce operations

Windows Server 2008 Datacenter

for businesses with huge volumes of transactions and large scale databases

Windows Web Server 2008

for web server and web hosting businesses

Windows Server 208 for Itanium-Based Systems

for computers with 64-bit processors that function as a web server

Virtualization

the practice of sharing or pooling computing resources, such as servers

Through Virtualiztion, for example, OS such as Windows Server 2008 can separate a _______ server into ______ ________ servers.

physical; several virtual

More About UNIX

it is a multipurpose operating system because it is both a stand alone and server operating system

Many Web servers use _____ as their OS.

unix

More About Linux

it is also a multipurpose operating system

Solaris

a version of unix developed by sun microsystems, server operating system designed specifically for e-commerce applications

NetWare

by novell, a server operating system designed for client/ server networks

NetWare has a server portion that _______ ____ ___ _______.

resides on a network

Windows Embedded CE

scaled down windows operating system designed for use on communications, entertainment and computing devices with limited functionality

Examples of Windows Embedded CE

voIP telephones, industrial control devices, digital cameras, digital photo frames, fuel pumps, security robots, handheld navigation devices, portable media players, ticket machines, automated teller machines

Windows Phone 7

a sucessor to windows mobile,includes functionality, programs, and a user interfaces designed for specific types of smart phones

A Competing OS to Windows Phone 7

palm os

Utility Program

(utility) a type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs

Most OS include server ____ _____utility programs,

built in

File Manager

a utility that performs functions related to file management

Folder

a specific named location on a storage medium that contains related documents

Shortcut

an icon on the desktop or in a folder that provides a user with immediate access to a program or file

Search Utility

a program that attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you specify

OS typically include a _____ _______.

file manager

Index

stores a variety of information about a file, including its name, date created, date modified, author name, and so on

Search Utilities typically use an _____ to assist with locating files quickly.

index

Image Viewer

the utility that allows users to display, copy, and print the contents of a graphics file, such as a photo

Uninstaller

a utility that removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system files

Disk Cleanup Utility

searches for and removes unnecessary files

Disk Defragmenter

a utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer's hard drive so that the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster

Fragmented

when the contents of a file are scattered across two or more noncontiguous sectors

Defragmenting

reorganizing it so that the files are stored in contiguous sectors

Fragmenting ____ ______ disk access and the performance of the entire computer.

slows down

Backup Utility

allows users to copy selected files or an entire hard disk to another storage medium such as another hard disk,optical disc, usb flash drive, or tape

Many BackUp programs ______, or shrink the size of the file during the backup process

compress

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