French for "Rebirth" This movement started in Italy and focused on a return of Grecco Roman values and characteristics.
the 15th century in Italy. Where the Renaissance began and Italian influence flourished.
Italian City States
This Independent establishments in Italy were some of the richest in Europe because of their flourishing Mediterranean trade. Not influenced by Rome because of Bablonian captivity and great schism.
The chief city of tuscany that grew rich in the later middle ages from the production of woolens. It became a breeding ground for the ideas that fueled the Renaissance. Sponsered by the Medici.
Giovanni de Medici
Founder of the Medici family he was a merchant and broker in Florence.
Cosimo de Medici
By allying himself with influential people in Florence he became an unofficial ruler himself in the earlyish 15th century son of Giovanni de Medici
Lorenzo de Medici
Like his predecessors Cosimo and Giovanni he used wealth to govern but mostly lived a lavish life style.
People in the Renaissance began to value an active and gregarious life as well as a sacred and celibate one. Poverty used to be well respected in Christian doctrine but now people of wealth were respected more.
the belief that man can shape his own destiny and be great. Could be expressed by prowess and skill in arts or war and the pursuit of success.
A form of art once reserved for cathedrals in the Middle ages now became its own free standing branch of art in the Renaissance. It was greatly inspired by Grecco Roman art. Often used nudes.
This form of art in the Renaissance was not influenced much by Grecco Roman art because very little of it survived. Three dimensional effects were achieved.
Renaissance writers that wrote in latin. Were not part of the clergy unlike earlier writers. Found inspiration from the ancients. Searched for Grecco Roman texts to examine and wrote for secular purposes. Men of letters.
Because so many writers began writing in Florence it helped to standardize Florentine as the main form of Italian in Italy. First Vernacular.
A prominent Humanist in Early renaissance. Inspired by cicero and St. Augustine. He wrote in all kinds of styles often writing about how human being should adjust to the world.
Written in Italian by Boccaccio this was the story of peoples adventures during the plague.
A humanist that became chancellor of Florence in 1375 he used his writings to glorify Florentine liberty against Milan.
Humanist that wrote a history of Florence. showed a sense for the need for authentic sources in writing. Writings aroused readers commitment to participation and defense of Florence.
Founder of Textual criticism. Found that latin changed a lot over time. found that the Donation of Constantine was a fake.
began putting age groups together and had a focus of teaching latin. Children also prepared for finer social aspects of life.
These were the result of carful planning on the part of the family of the bride and groom and were mostly done to increase social positions.
Wrote the Prince one of the few political writings from the renaissance. He outlined what a prince should be like and how he should rule.
End of Italian Renaissance
France and Spain and Germany crossed into Italy and because it was divided into city states it could not defend itself. in 1527 spainards and Germans as well as some Italians sacked Rome. The Italian Renaissance ended.
The writers of the North. They studied the Hebrew and Greek texts of the bible in order to learn more of Christianity and restore its morality.
These were established much more frequently in the northern renaissance. Centers of Pedantic, or monkish learning.
A very powerful German banking family that controlled more capital than anyone in Europe during the 15th century.
German inventor who invented the first books with moveable type and the printing press.
German scientist who believed the earth moved about the sun in the early 16th century.
belief that the individual soul in perfect solitude could commune directly with God and that Church and sacraments were not needed. This movement did not rebel against the church however. Included Meister Eckhard and Nicholas of Cusa.
Priests strengthened this type of religion during the Northern Renaissance. Previously priests and other laymen would advance into the clergy but they began to become a more independent class with its own beliefs leading into reformation.
The Sisters and Brothers of Common Life
An organization that was approved by the pope to teach, relieve poor, and live communally during Northern Renaissance. They were not like monks because they took now vows and could have possessions.
Eramus of Rotterdam
The greatest of Northern Humanists. Wrote Praise of Folly and Handbook of a Christian Knight. He did not go directly against the church but ofter satirized it and urged people to find morality in the New Testament.
Revivals of the governments that had been present in the middle ages. Rulers across Europe began consolidating power in the late Renaissance and growing a central army.
The New Monarchy of England. Their first ruler was Henry the seventh. He gained power after the war of roses which weakened the competing nobel families.
where Henry the seventh's council would meet to make decisions in england it was popular when it was created because it reserved order and rendered substantial justice.
The New Monarchy of France. This family had much more power over parliament than the tudors did and were able to create higher taxes. First ruler was Lois the eleventh. He united France from Paris.
One of the Spanish New Monarchies. This monarchy controlled the Mediterranean portion of spain as well as many islands and parts of Italy. King Ferdinand united this Monarchy with the other in 1469.
The New Monarchy of Spain the controlled the new worlds of America. Joined with Aragons when Queen Isabella married Ferdinand in 1469.
When spain wanted to get rid of all false christians from their lands so they tortured thousands in front of a court to make sure that their conversions had been sincere.
States in Germany during New Monarchies that were controlled by Royalty. (Saxony, Bavaria)
States in Germany during New Monarchies controlled by church or a bishop or abbot.
Imperial free cities
States in Germany during the New Monarchies that were independent and controlled much of the wealth and trade in Germany.
Took control of the Holy Roman empire in 1452 when the three states of Germany elected the Archduke of Austria to be the emperor. would control it for hundreds of Years.
A hapsburg emperor who gained much of the family fortune by using strategic royal marriages to gain land and power in germany. at about the turn of the 15th century.
Charles the fifth
A Hapsburg emperor who inherited nearly all of Europe including Austria, the Netherlands, Castile and Aragon and Spanish America. As well as parts of Italy.