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Using Sociology textbook 12th ed by John J. Macionis Chapter 4

Sociocultural Evolution

Lenski's term for the changes that occur as a society gains new technology

Hunting and Gathering

Making use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food

Horticulture

The use of hand tools to raise crops

Pastoralism

The domestication of animals

Agriculture

Lare-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources

Industrialism

The production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery

Postindustrialism

The production of information using computer technology

Social Conflict

The struggle between segments of society over valued resources

Capitalists

People who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits

Proletarians

People who sell their labor for wages

Social Institutions

The major spheres of social life, or societal subsystems, organized to meet human needs

False Consciousness

Marx's term for explanations of social problems as the shortcomings of individuals rather than as the flaws of society

Class Conflict

Conflict between entire classes over the distribution of a society's wealth and power

Class Consciousness

Marx's term for workers' recognition of themselves as a class unified in opposition to capitalists and ultimately to capitalism itself

Alienation

The experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness

Ideal Type

An abstract statement of the essential characteristics of any social phenomenon

Tradition

Values and beliefs passed from generation to generation

Rationality

A way of thinking that emphasiszes deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task

Rationalization of Society

Weber's term for the historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought

Anomie

Durkheim's term for a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals

Mechanical Solidarity

Durkheim's term for social bonds, based on common sentiments and shared moral values, that are strong among members of preindustrial societies

Organic Solidarity

Durkheim's term for social bonds, based on specialization and interdependence, that are strong among members of industrial societies

Division of Labor

Specialized economic activity

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