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provide mobility for the hand in space and provide stability for skilled or forceful movements of the hand

What is the function of the elbow?

humeroulnar, humeroradial, radioulnar (proximal)

What are the three joints of the elbow?

1, flexion/extension

How many degrees of freedom does the humeroulnar joint have? What movements can it do?

anterior roll, anterior glide

Describe the rolls and glides of the humeroulnar joint.

coronoid process enters the coronoid fossa

What happens when the humeroulnar joint goes into flexion?

olecranon process enters olecranon fossa

What happens when the humeroulnar joint goes into extension?

distal end of humerus bulges anteriorly 45 degrees

What allows the humerus and ulna to be almost parallel before the coronoid process enters the fossa?

2, flexion/extension and pronation/supination

How many degrees of freedom does the humeroradial joint have? What are its main actions?

radius and capitulum of the humerus

What two structures articulate at the humeroradial joint?

1, pronation/supination

How many degrees of freedom does the radioulnar joint have? What is its main action?

convex on concave, superior roll, inferior glide

Describe the arthrokinematics of the radioulnar joint, and the rolls and glides.

1/5

How much of the radio ulnar joint is bony contact?

4/5

How much of the radioulnar joint is made of the annular ring (annular ligament)?

carrying angle

in anatomical position, the forearm is held in an abducted position

valgus

is the normal carrying angle a varus or valgus position?

10-15 degrees

What is the normal carrying angle for women?

5-10 degrees

What is the normal carrying angle for men?

hand to mouth movement

What is the most likely reason for the carrying angle?

cubitis valgus

What is the name for a carrying angle greater than 20 degrees?

cubitis varus

What is the name for a carrying angle less than 5 degrees?

MCL, LCL and annular ligament

What are the three main ligaments of the elbow joint?

anterior, posterior and oblique

What are the three parts of the MCL?

valgus

What type of force does the MCL prevent?

MCL

in order for the last 20 degrees of elbow flexion to be reached, what ligament must be stretched?

LCL

Which elbow ligament is fan shaped?

anterior, intermediate, posterior

what are the three fibers of the LCL?

varus

What type of force does the LCL prevent?

LCL

What elbow ligament also supports the annular ligament and the radioulnar joint?

radial head

What structure does the annular ligament surround?

it is lined with articular cartilage

what is unusual about the annular ligament?

nurse maid's elbow

What injury results from pulling the radial head out of the annular ligament?

interosseus membrane

What is the name given to the collaginous sheet running between the radius and the ulna?

provides stability for the proximal and distal radioulnar joint

What is the function of the interosseus membrane?

neutral

In what position is the interosseus membrane taut?

pronation/supination, muscles

When is the interosseus membrane relaxed? What is supporting the system in this position?

3 joints in one capsule

What is unusual about the elbow joint capsule?

brachialis

What is the main flexor of the elbow?

brachialis, brachioradialis, biceps brachii

What are the three flexor muscles of the elbow?

spurt

Is the brachialis muscle a shunt or spurt muscle?

100 degrees of flexion

In what position can the brachialis produce the greatest torque?

crosses as a muscle

What is special about how the brachialis crosses the elbow joint?

shunt

Is the brachioradialis muscle a shunt or spurt muscle?

supination in extreme pronation or pronation in extreme supination

Other than flexion, what type of movents can the brachioradialis produce?

spurt

is the biceps brachii a shunt or spurt muscle?

80-100 degrees of flexion

In what position can the biceps brachii produce the greatest torque?

pronator teres

What muscle acts as an accessory flexor of the elbow?

myositis ossificans

calcium infiltrates the muscle, causing it to no longer work

triceps and anconeus

What are the elbow extensor muscles?

90 degrees of elbow flexion

When does the triceps generate the most isometric torque?

pronator teres and pronator quadratus

What are the pronator muscles of the elbow?

pronator teres and pronator quadratus

What muscles act as the supporting structures when the interosseus membrane is lax?

pronator quadratus

What muscle maintains compression on the distal radioulnar joint?

pronator teres

What muscle maintains compression on the proximal radioulnar joint?

supinator and biceps brachii

What muscles supinate the elbow?

90 degrees of elbow flexion

In what position is the biceps brachii the most efficent supinator?

ECRL, ECRB, FCU

What muscles are considered secondary elbow flexors?

anconeus

What muscle is considered a secondary elbow extensor?

APL, EPB, extensor indices

What muscles are considered secondary elbow supinators?

FCR, ECRL

What muscles are considered secondary elbow pronators?

ulnar

what nerve is found in the sulcus between the median epicondyle and the olecranon?

brachial artery

What is the major vascular supply to the lower arm?

130-140 degrees, soft

What is the normal ROM for elbow flexion? feel?

0 degrees, hard

What is the normal ROM for elbow extension? feel?

85 degrees

What is the normal ROM for elbow supination and pronation?

firm

What is the end feel for supination?

hard

What is the end feel for pronation?

extension with supination

What is close packed position for the humeroulnar joint?

45 degrees of flexion

What is loose packed position for the humeroulnar joint?

glide same as roll

Describe the rolls and glides of the humeroulnar joint?

70 degrees of flexion, 45 degrees of pronation

What is close packed position for the humeroradial joint?

extension with supination

What is loose packed position of the humeroradial joint?

glide same as roll (concave on convex)

Describe the arthrokinemetics of the humeroulnar joint?

superior roll, inferior glide, convex on concave

Describe the rolls and glides and arthrokinematics of the proximal radioulnar joint

hyperextension

What is generally the cause of elbow dislocation?

MCL

What ligament is usually ruptured during elbow dislocation?

ulnar nerve and brachial artery

What other structures may be damaged during elbow dislocation?

lateral epicondylitis

What is the clinical name for tennis elbow?

extensor tendon overload

What is the cause of lateral epicondylitis?

medial epicondylitis

What is the clinical name for little league elbow?

resisted wrist flexion and pronation

What can aggrivate the pain of medial epicondylitis?

gravity, tightening pecs to lock out arm

How could you extend your elbow if the radial nerve was damaged?

brachialis

What muscle is always active in elbow flexion regardless of speed of movement or presence of load?

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