A, D, E, K
SRBP, CRBP, RABP
proteins that transfer vitamin A from the liver to tissues
functions of vitamin A
inactive form of a protein
night blindness, keratomalacia and defective epithelialization
symptoms of vitamin A deficiency
beta-carotene is converted into ____ by B-carotene dioxygenase
retinol or retinoic acid
retinaldehyde is converted into either ____ or ____
activated retinal has all cis or all trans double bonds?
retinol is converted into _____ by retinal isomerase
an overdose of which vitamin might cause teratogenic effects?
what vitamin is not normally required from diet?
the active form of vitamin D is produced in the ____
increase Ca absorption from GI and incorporation of Ca into bone
function of vitamin D
rickets in kids, osteomalacia in adults
vitamin D deficiency causes
hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria
symptoms of vitamin D toxicity
function of vitamin E
tocopherol is known as _____
2, 7, 9 and 10
vitamin K is important in the synthesis of what coagulation factors
source of vitamin K in body
vitamin K deficiency can cause ______
vitamin K antagonist
warfarin is a ______
excess intake of vitamin C can lead to ____
deficiency of vitamin C can lead to _____
artherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and cancer
antioxidant properties of vitamin C are involved in prevention of ____, _____ and _____.
production of collagen is a function of what vitamin?
what amino acid is involved in the binding of Zn ions?
excess Zn can cause a deficiency in what other metal?
Zn increases the activity of what enzyme?
maintanence of skin, wound healing, spermatogenesis and testosterone metabolism
what are some functions of zinc metal ion
growth retardation, skin lesions, impairment in sexual development
deficiency in zinc ion can cause ____, ____ and ____
cytochrome oxidase, superoxide dismutase, lysyl oxidase
Copper is associated with the function of what enzymes (3)?
anemia, neutropenia, degeneration of vascular tissue and bleeding, alteration of hair structure, skin depigmentation
deficiency in copper ion can cause what?
hemolysis, damage to liver and brain cells
what are some symptoms of acute copper toxicity
chronic excessive intake of copper can cause ____
disease that is associated with the inability of body to synthesize ceruloplasmin leading to chronic accumulation of copper in the liver
skins lesions are associated with a deficiency in what vitamin/metal?
skin depigmentation is associated with a deficiency in what vitamin/metal?
alteration of hair structure is associated with a deficiency in what vitamin/metal?
neutropenia is associated with a deficiency in what vitamin/metal?
anemia is associated with a deficiency in what metal ion?
degradation of vascular tissue with bleeding is associated with a deficiency in what vitamin/metal?
cirrhosis is associated with an excess intake of what vitamin/metal?
hemolysis is associated with _____ toxicity
excess intake of ____ can interfere with Fe and Zn
_____ toxicity can cause damage to brain and liver cells
neurologic symptoms are associated with a deficiency in what vitamin/metal?
hemolytic anemia is caused by a deficiency in what vitamin?
growth retardation is caused by deficiency in what vitamin/metal?
impairment in sexual development is caused by deficiency in what vitamin/metal?
______ toxicity can cause bone pain
______ toxicity can cause nausea
______ toxicity can cause diarrhea
______ toxicity can cause dermatitis
______ toxicity can cause hepatosplenomegaly
hemolytic anemia and neurologic symptoms
deficiency in vitamin E can cause
vitamin D is activated by the ____
low levels of ____ stimulate production of vitamin D