Catherine the Great
Russian ruler (1762-1796) with Western ideas, took steps to modernize and reform Russia (Enlightenment); put limited reforms in place (more important to extend central governmental authority than Western reform), and did little to improve the lives of the Russian peasants; gave nobles absolute power over serfs because she needed the nobles' support (just crushed them in a rebellion); fought to gain access to the Black Sea against Ottoman Turks and expanded empire into Poland, Siberia, Alaska.
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
Russia, with Moscow as its capital, claimed to be the successor of the Roman and Byzantine empires.
Partitions of Poland
18TH CENTURY - Polish nobility proved incapable of regulating own affairs. In 1763 Catherine got former lover Poniatowski on throne. Fred II concerned about extension of Russian power over Poland - diplomatically intervened and arranged first of 3 partitions. 1) 1772, Poland lost about half its territory. Prussia got Pomerelia, Russia took Byelorussia and Austria got Galicia. 2) 1793, Russia gained most of Lithuania and the western Ukraine while Prussia took area around Danzig and additional territory in western Poland. 3) 1795, after Polish national revolt under Kosciuszko the three powers undertook 3rd partition. POLAND CEASED TO EXIST AS AN INDEPENDENT STATE. PRUSSIA TOOK AREA AROUND WARSAW, AUSTRIA GAINED THE CRACOW REGION AND RUSSIA TOOK WHAT WAS LEFT OF LITHUANIA AND THE UKRAINE. POLES, LITHUANIANS, BYELORUSSIANS AND UKRAINIANS RESENTED BEING UNDER RUSSIAN DOMINATION. (Catherine only ruler to take part in all 3)
Also known as Peter the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of western European models.
A Cossack chieftain who claimed to be the legitimate tsar, launched a rebellion against tsarist authority and promised to abolish serfdom, taxation and military conscription.
Time of Troubles
followed death of Ivan IV without heir early in 17th century; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613.
Ivan IV (the Terrible)
Confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking the authority of the boyars; continued policy of expansion; established contacts with western European commerce and culture.
Second Romanov tsar; abolished assemblies of nobles; gained new powers over Russian Orthodox church.
one of first Western inspired radicals;
sought abolition of serfdom and more liberal political rule;
vigorously harassed by Catherine the Great's police;
his writings were banned
Institution in which a peasant is attached to a feudal estate.
A time period starting tradition of centralized rule from 862 AD; influenced Ivan the Terrible.
Labor obligations of Russian peasants to either their aristocratic landlords or to the state; typical of increased labor burdens placed on Russian peasantry during the 18th century.
Capitol city of Russia built by Peter the Great. It was on the coast of the Baltic Sea and considered Russia's window to the West and is a symbol of Peter's desire to westernize.
Peoples of the Russian Empire who lived outside the farming villages, often as herders, mercenaries, or outlaws. Cossacks led the conquest of Siberia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov (17th century); many exiled to Siberia or southern Russia, where they became part of Russian colonization.
Husband of Catherine the Great, was mentally unstable, and was murdered by a group of Russian army officers. Whether or not Catherine was involved in the murder is unknown, but she did benefit by it as she then had the throne to herself., Withdrew from the Seven Year's War because he liked Frederick II of Prussia. This essentially stopped the war.
In the reign of Ivan III (r. 1462-1505), the process of gathering in the territories around Moscow was completed. Of the principalities the Ivan III purchased and conquered, the large, rich merchant republic of Novgorod was the most crucial. This prince of Moscow was an autocrat and tsar. This imperious conception of absolute power was powerfully reinforced by two developments. First, about 1480 Ivan III felt strong enough to stop acknowledging the khan as the supreme ruler. Second, after the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453, the tsars saw themselves as the heirs of both the Caesars and Orthodox Christianity, the one true faith. Also, he dispatcheddiplomatic missions to leading Western states.
The fortress at the center of Moscow; Ivan III had palaces and cathedrals built there.
instruction of 1767
document prepared by Empress Catherine (II), the Great, that recommended liberal, humanitarian political theories for use as the basis of government reform and the formulation of a new legal code.-
policy of Peter the Great. Adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture
dynasty that favored the nobles, reduced military obligations, expanded the Russian empire further east, and fought several unsuccessful wars, yet they lasted from 1613 to 1917.
Alexis de Toqueville
Writer, came from France to America in 1831. He observed democracy in government and society. His book (written in two parts in 1835 and 1840) discusses the advantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals. About 1800, he likened Russia (post Cath the Grt who died, 1796), to the US as the two giants of future world history.
Chancery of the Secret Police
A police force operating largely in secret and often using terror tactics to suppress dissent and political opposition, survived under different names from Peter the Great, 1690 to modern times, 1990s.