Anatomy IV; nervous & endocrine system

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Negative feedback system

regulates the amount of hormones secreted by the endocrine gland by stimulating the opposite response

Hormonal control system

What system uses hormones to stimulate or inhibit the release of other hormones?

adrenaline

What is a synonym for the hormone epinephrine?

pancreas

What gland is both endocrine and exocrine?

Pituitary

What is known as the "master gland?"

anterior pituitary

what stores hormones produced by the hypothalamus?

Pituitary

Which gland helps to regulate carbohydrate metabolism?

Ovaries

Which gland contains the corpus luteum?

Pancreas

Which gland contains alpha and beta cells?

anterior pituitary

Which gland secretes the hormone prolactin?

Pancreas

Which gland secretes the hormone glucagon?

Pineal

Which gland secretes the hormone melatonin?

Adrenal cortex

Which gland secretes the hormone aldosterone?

anterior pituitary

Which gland secretes adrenocorticotropic hormone?

Pancreas

Which gland secretes the hormone insulin?

Thyroid

Which gland secretes the hormones thyroxin & triiodothyronine?

posterior pituitary

Which gland "secretes" the hormone oxytocin

Adrenal cortex

Which gland secretes the hormone cortisol?

melatonin

Which gland is involved with the circadian rhythm?

dendrite

What carries the electrical signal away from the cell body of a neuron?

Neurolemmocytes

What cell wraps around the neurons of the peripheral nervous system to form a myelin sheath?

synaptic vesicles

Where are neurotransmitters stored?

cerebellum

What element of the CNS is responsible for the smooth and coordinated movement of skeletal muscle?

gray matter

Where in the CNS does synapses primarily occur?

cerobrospinal fluid

fluid that circulates around the brain and spinal cord

cerebrospinal fluid

what fluid acts as a shock absorber around the spinal cord and brain?

autonomic nervous sytstem

part of the PNS that is involuntary, supplying impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands

parasympathetic nervous system

part of the ANS that conserves body resources and activates the relaxation response

axons

What transmits impulses away from teh cell body?

motor

What nerves carry messages from the brain or spinal cord; efferent

sympathetic nervous system

part of the ANS involved with spending body resources and preparing the body for emergency situations

reflex

an instantaneous, automatic response to a stimulus originating from either inside or oustside the body.

thermoreceptors

receptors that detect cold and heat

nociceptors

receptors for detecting pain

chemoreceptors

receptors activated by the chemical stimuli

sensor

nerves that carry impulses from nerve receptors to the brain or spinal cord; afferent

neurotransmitters

a collective term for a vast range of chemicals that facilitate, arouse, or inhibit the transmission of nerve impulses

mechanoreceptors

receptors responding to mechanical stimuli

nerve fiber node

the "gap" between neuroglial cells as they wrap around a neuron

intervertebral foramen

spinal nerves exit the vertebral canal through which anatomical space?

somatic nervous system

Which division of the PNS regulates skeletal muscle?

sympathetic nervous system

The fight or flight response is a function of the?

periosteal dura

which layer of the dura mater, or pachymenix, lies on the inside surface of the cranium or skull?

tentorium cerebelli

what seperates the cerebrum from the cerebellum?

parasympathetic nervous system

what is the divison of the autonomic nervous system that is involved with the relaxation response?

myelin

What is the fat and protein insulation substance around some axons that assists conduction?

central nervous system

What division of the nervous system contains the brain, spinal cord, CSF, and meninges?

reflex

What is an instantaneous, involuntary response to a stimulus?

cerebellum

What part of the brain governs muscle tone, coordination, balance, fine and gross motor movements?

plexus

What is the term used to describe a network of intersecting nerves in the PNS?

golgi tendon organs

What are the tendon reflex receptors called that respond by inhibiting muscle contractions?

muscle spindles

What is the stretch reflex receptor called that responds by contracting the muscle?

proprioceptors

What is the general term for receptors responding to changes in muscle length, tension, and body position?

sympathetic and parasympathetic

The autonomic nervous system is divided into which of the following?

cerebrum, diencephalon, cerebellum, brain stem

What are the 4 major regions of the brain?

cerebrum

What is the largest region of the brain?

photoreceptors

Which sensory receptors are located in the retina?

lobes

What are the regions of the cerebrum called?

astrocytes

Which cell type is part of the blood-brain barrier?

motor neuron

Any impulse which travels away from the CNS to activate or inhibit a muscle or gland is called what?

afferent

Sensory nerves that carry impulses from nerve receptors to the brain or spinal cord are called what?

interceptors

What are the receptors called that respond to stimuli originating from within the body regarding the function of the internal organs, such as digestion, excretion, and blood pressure, and are located in the viscera?

occipital lobe

Which cerebral lobe contains a center for visual input?

parietal lobe

Which cerebral lobe governs somatosensory input?

frontal lobe

which cerebral lobe regulates motor output, cognition, and speech production?

temporal lobe

Which cerebral lobe houses auditory and olfactory areas, as well as Wernicke's area?

spinal cord

What exits the skull through the foramen magnum?

stimuli

What is the term used to describe changes in the internal or external environment?

polarized

What is the term used to describe when the inside of the neural membrane bears a negative charge and the outside of the neural membrane bears a positive charge?

neurons and glia cells

What are the 2 types of cells found in the nervous system?

sensory

What type of neuron carries impulses to the brain and spinal cord?

schwann cells

cells that produce myelin for cells outside the brain and spinal cord are what?

hypothalamus

The regulation of the sleep cycle, water balance, and the production of ADH occurs in the?

cerebellum

The coordination of muscle movement and the maintenance of equilibrium occurs in the?

corpus callosum

The right and left sides of the cerebrum are connected by the?

dura mater

The tough outer layer of meninges is called what?

diencephalon

the midbrain, hypothalamus and medulla oblongata are all apart of what?

skeletal muscles

The somatic nervous system controls actions of what?

true

true/false: A nerve cell and a neuron are the same thing.

ganglion

What is a group of nerve cell bodies located in the PNS called?

true

true/false: All interneurons are found in the CNS.

dura mater

The outermost and toughest of the meninges is called what?

spinal nerves

31 pairs of these make up part of the PNS

arachnoid mater

The "spider web" -like part of meninges

sympathetic nervous system

Regulates the "fight or flight" response

pia mater

The thin innermost layer of the meninges

acetylcholine

A neurotransmitter that is released from the postganglionic axons of the PNS

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