Muscles: Origin, Insertion, and Action

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Pectoralis Major

Origin: Clavicle, sternum, cartilages of ribs 1-7 Insertion: Crest of greater tubercle of humerus Action: flexes, adducts, and medially rotates arm

Deltoid

Origin: Clavicle, acromion process, spine of scapula Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus Action: Abducts arm; flexes, extends, medially, and laterally rotates arm

Teres Major

Origin: Inferior angle of scapula Insertion: Crest of lesser tubercle of humerus Action: Extends, adducts, and medially rotates arm

Subscapularis

Origin: Subscapular fossa Insertion: Lesser tubercle of humerus Action: Medially rotates arm, stabilizes shoulder joint

Latissimus Dorsi

Origin: T7-12, L1-5, S1-5, Crest of ilium, ribs 10-12 Insertion: Intertubercular groove of humerus Action: Extends, adducts, and medially raises arm; draws shoulder inferiorly.

Supraspinatus

Origin: Suprapinous Fossa Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus Action: Abducts arm, helps stabilize shoulder joint

Infraspinatus

Origin: Infraspinous Fossa Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus Action: Laterally rotates arm, stabilizes shoulder joint

Teres Minor

Origin: Lateral border of scapula Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus Action: Laterally rotates and adducts arm, stabilizes shoulder joint

Biceps Brachii

Origin: Long head; superior margin of glenoid fossa Short Head; Coracoid process of scapula Insertion: Radial Tuberosity Action: Flexes arm, flexes forearm, supinates hand

Brachialis

Origin: Anterior, distal surface of humerus Insertion: coronoid process of ulna Action: Flexes forearm

Triceps Brachii

Origin: Infraglenoid tuberosity of scapula, lateral and posterior surface of humerus Insertion: Olecranon process, tuberosity of ulna Action: Extends and adducts arm, extends forearm

Brachioradialis

Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus Insertion: styloid process of radius Action: Flexes forearm

Gracillis

Origin: Symphysis Pubis Insertion: Proximal, medial tibia Action: Adducts thigh, flexes leg

Tensor fasciae latae

Origin: iliac crest, anterior iliac surface Insertion: iliotibial band of fasciae latae Action: Flexes, abducts, and medially rotates thigh

Gluteus Maximus

Origin: Outer iliac blade, iliac crest, sacrum, coccyx Insertion: Gluteal tuberosity of femur, iliotibial band of fasciae latae Action: Extends and laterally rotates thigh, braces knee

Gluteus Medius

Origin: Outer iliac blade Insertion: Greater trochanter of femur Action: Abducts and medially rotates thigh

Adductor Magnus

Origin: Pubis, ischium Insertion: Gluteal tuberosity, linea aspera, adductor tubercle of distal femur Action: Adducts, flexes, extends and laterally rotates thigh

Sartorius

Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine Insertion: Proximal, medial tibia Action: Flexes and laterally rotates thigh, flexes leg

Rectus Femoris

Origin: Anterior inferior iliac spine, margin of acetabulum Insertion: Tibial tuberosity by patellar tendon Action: Flexes thigh, extends leg

Vastus Lateralis

Origin: Greater trochanter of femur, linea aspera of femur Insertion: Tibial tuberosity by patellar tendon Action: Extends Leg

Vastus medialis

Origin: Linea aspera, medial side Insertion: Tibial tuberosity by patellar tendon Action: Extends Leg

Vastus Intermedius

Origin: Proximal, anterior femur Insertion: Tibial tuberosity by patellar tendon Action: Extends Leg

Biceps Femoris

Origin: Ischial tuberosity, Linea aspera Insertion: Head of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia Action: Extends thigh, flexes leg

Semitendinosus

Origin: Ischial Tuberosity Insertion: Proximal, medial tibia Action: Extends thigh, flexes leg

Semimembranosus

Origin: Ischial tuberosity Insertion: Medial condyle of tibia Action: Extends thigh, flexes leg

Tibialis anterior

Origin: Lateral condyle and proximal tibia Insertion: First metatarsal and first cuneiform Action: Dorsiflexes and inverts foot

Gastrocnemius

Origin: Condyles of femur Insertion: Calcaneus by calcaneal tendon Action: Flexes leg, plantar flexes foot

Soleus

Origin:Posterior, proximal tibia and fibula Insertion: Calcaneus by calcaneal tendon Action: Plantar flexes foot

Peroneus longus

Origin: Head and shaft of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia Insertion: First metatarsal, first cuneiform Action: Plantar flexes and everts foot

Extensor digitorum longus

Origin: Lateral COndyle of tibia, shaft of fibula Insertion: Middle of distal phalanges of second through fifth digits Action: Extends toes, dorsiflexes foot

Pectoralis minor

Origin: Insertion: Action:

External intercostal

Origin: Inferior border of a rib Insertion: Superior border of rib below Action: Elevates ribs (increases volume in thorax)

Internal intercostals

Origin: Inferior border of a rib Insertion: Superior border of rib below Action: Depresses ribs (decreases volume in thorax)

Tapezius

Origin: Posterior occipital bone, ligamentum nuchae, C7-T12 Insertion: Clavicle, Acromion process, and spine of scapula Action: Extends and abducts head, rotates and adducts scapula, fixes scapula

Rhomboid major

Origin: Spines of T2-5 Insertion: Lower one-third of vertebral border of scapula Action: adducts scapula (draws scapulae together)

Rhomboid minor

Origin: Ligamentum nuchae, Spines C7-T1 Insertion: Vertebral border of scapula at scapular spine Action: Adducts scapula (draws scapulae together)

Frontalis

Origin: Galea aponeurotica Insertion: Skin superior to orbit Action: Raises eyebrows, draws scalp anteriorly

Orbicularis oris

Origin: Fascia of facial muscles near mouth Insertion: Skin of lips Action: Closes lips

Orbicularis oculi

Origin: Frontal and maxilla on medial margin of orbit Insertion: Skin of eyelid Action: Closes eyelid

Masseter

Origin: Zygomatic arch Insertion: Angle and ramus of mandible Action: Closes mandible

Temporalis

Origin: Temporal fossa Insertion: coronoid process and ramus of mandible Action: Closes mandible

Sternocleidomastoid

Origin: Sternum, clavicle Insertion: Mastoid process of temporal Action: Abducts, rotates, and flexes head

Serratus Anterior

Origin: Ribs 1-8 Insertion: Vertebral border and inferior angle of scapula Action: Abducts scapula (moves scapula away from spinal column)

Rectus Abdominis

Origin: Crest of pubis, symphysis pubis Insertion: Cartilages of ribs 5-7, xiphoid process Action: Flexes vertebral column, compresses abdominal wall

External oblique

Origin: Ribs 5-12 Insertion: Linea alba, iliac crest, pubis Action: Compresses abdominal wall, laterally rotates trunk

Internal oblique

Origin: Inguinal ligament, iliac crest Insertion: Linea alba, ribs 10-12 Action: Compresses abdominal wall, laterally rotates trunk

Transverse abdominus

Origin: Insertion: Action:

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