Unit 7 Test Preparation "Nationalism and the Age of Jefferson"

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Adams- Onis Treaty of 1819

US buys Florida for $5,000,000. The Sabine river is determined to be the Southwest border of the Louisiana Territory. *Spain gives up all claims in Oregon above 42 degrees N Latitude.

American System

Developed by Henry Clay, an idea that all states would fund western improvements.

Columbia Proposal

English try to get America to agree to split Oregon by the Columbia River.

Dartmouth College Case

Wins an appeal to remain a Private University. States are required to honor the sanctity of contract. Dartmouth was on land owned by the state of New Hampshire and rented to the University, the rent was about to end.

Gibbons v. Ogden

Trade between New York & New Jersey (Interstate trade v. Intrastate trade). *Denied states (NY) the right to create intestate monopolies or to legislate any aspect of interstate trade.

McCulloch v. Maryland

(1819) Maryland attempted to tax every transaction of the Baltimore branch of the BUS. McCulloch, president of the Baltimore branch, sues the BUS. John Marshall, "States may not tax any appendage of the central government. The BUS is unconstitutional." "The power to tax is the power to destroy."

Missouri Compromise

The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.

Monroe's Doctrine

United States most important foreign policy, establishes leadership in the Western Hemisphere. 1. USA considers Latin America closed to further European colonization. 2. USA will not allow European countries to interfere in the affairs of new western hemispheric governments. 3. USA will promote the growth of Republics and prevent the spread of monarchy.

Monster

What people called the Bank of the United States

Treaty of 1827

US and England agree to joint-occupy Oregon.

Rufus King

As a federalist he had the unfortunate luck of running against James Monroe in the election of 1816 (King lost)

Andrew Jackson

The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.

Eli Whitney

United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825).

George Canning

Foreign Minister of England, created a proposal. USA, England, and France would all guarantee Spanish control of Cuba.

Henry Clay

Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state. Also ran against Andrew Jackson in 1832.

James Monroe

He was the fifth President of the United States. He is the author of the Monroe Doctrine. Proclaimed that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars

John Jacob Astor

A new Yorker, he founded the American Fur company, became the wealthiest man in the U.S.

John Quincy Adams

Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.

Samuel Slater

sailed to the U.S. under a false name to give Americans the secret of Britain's textile machines

Simon Bolivar

The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. (The Liberator)

"Tippecanoe and Tyler too" "Van, Van your a used up man"

Harrisons log cabin slogan. (Campaign strategy)

Tariff of Abomination

Tariff with very high rates on goods imported from other countries. Northerners wanted tariff to promote own industry-Southerners had no protection. South Carolina protested this greatly, they said that the tariff was in violation of the compact w/ the central gov. ; therefore, perhaps no interceable in South Carolina.

Cherokee Trail of Tears

The moving of the Cherokee Indians to Oklahoma. Only 1 out of 5 lived.

Compromise Tariff Act of 1833

1. Reduces tariff over 10 years and back to the 1816 level. 2. Force Act- the president does have the right to use force to make states obey national law.

Jacksonian Revolution

Jackson's Presidency is vary laid back (We the people)

Kitchen Cabinet

Jackson's group of unofficial advisors consisting of newspaper editors and Democratic leaders that met to discuss current issues. Jackson used the Kitchen Cabinet more than his official Cabinet.

Panic and Depression of 1837

was caused by Jackson's specie circulatory but the depression was blamed on Van Buren.

Spoils System

The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Letting friends have a position in the government. Jackson made this practice famous for the way he did it on a wide scale.

Webster- Hayne Debates

Hayne first responded to Daniel Webster's argument of states' rights versus national power, with the idea of nullification. Webster then spent 2 full afternoons delivering his response which he concluded by saying that "Liberty and Union, now and for ever, one and inseparable"

Whig Party

1833-1856. Operated in opposition to policies of President Andrew Jackson and the Democratic Party. Favored the powers of Congress over the Executive branch. Chose name as the name was synonomous with those who opposed autocratic rule.

Alexander McLeod

Arrested Renselar and brought him to New York.

Daniel Webster

a senator from Massachusettes and the most powerful speaker of his time who was involved in the Webster-Hayne debate

John Tyler

elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery

Martin Van Buren

Served as secretary of state during Andrew Jackson's first term, vice president during Jackson's second term, and won the presidency in 1836

Nicholas Biddle

President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.

Robert Hayne

Believed that states should have more rights. He was from South Carolina. He debated Daniel Webster about the doctrine of states rights.

Van Rensselar

An English gun runner.

William Henry Harrison

was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.

Election of 1816

Election when Rufus King (federalist candidate) was brutally defeated by Monroe. Rufus King was a strong advocate for the abolition of slavery. His loss signified the 'death' of the federalist party

Election of 1820

James Monroe ran unopposed, was re elected.

Election of 1824

No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain."

Election of 1828

The election of 1824 convinced Van Buren of the need for a renewed two-party competition. In the election of 1828, a new party formed & gradually became known as the Democratic Party which made Jackson president & Calhoun VP. Opponents called themselves the National Republicans.

Election of 1832

(Jackson v. Clay) Jackson won reelection in the midst of the nullification crisis while at odds with his Vice president John C. Calhoon

Election of 1836

Martin Van Buren won, Jackson supported him, unpopular president--- blamed for the Panic of 1837, not Andrew Jackson

Election of 1840

Martin Van Buren tries for re election but is defeated by William Henry Harrison.

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