Energy and the Cell (Enzymes)

26 terms by Clausen 

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Energy

The capacity to do work

Kinetic Energy

Energy of motion

Chemical Energy

The potential energy of molecules due to stored energy in bonds

Potential energy

Energy stored due to an object's position or arrangement. In the case of chemical energy this is due to bond arrangement

Endergonic Reactions

Energy absorbing reactions

Exergonic Reactions

Energy releasing reactions

Endothermic Reactions

Reactions absorbing energy. Same as endergonic

Exothermic Reactions

Reactions releasing energy. Same as exergonic

Activation Energy

Energy barrier that must be overcome before a chemical reaction can occur

Enzyme

Protein molecule that speeds up chemical reactions in living things by lowering the activation energy

Substrate

The reactants (beginning chemicals) acted on by an enzyme

Active site

Pocket or groove located on the enzyme that fits the substrate

Induced Fit

The mechanism by which the substrates bonds are weakened by the enzyme

Denaturation

The breakdown of enzymes by excessive heat or extreme pH

Inhibitor

Chemical that interferes with an enzymes activity by out-competing substrates for space on the active site of enzyme

Catalase

Enzyme responsible for breaking down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen

Chemical digestion

Enzymatic breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules.

Amylase

Enzyme contained in saliva and pancreatic juices that breaks down starch

Lipase

Enzyme contained in pancreatic juices that breaks down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol

Trypsin

Enzyme contained in pancreatic juices that breaks down protein molecules into amino acids

Pepsin

Enzyme found in acidic stomach environment functioning to digest protein molecules

Bile

Produced by the liver to mechanically increase the surface area of fat by breaking it into small droplets

Lock and key hypothesis

The idea that enzymes are specifically shaped to fit only one type of substrate

Enzyme-Substrate complex

A temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecules

cellular respiration

Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.

photosynthesis

Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy. Carbon dioxide + water ----> glucose + oxygen

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