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soup stock

Soup stock
Flavored liquid made from meat and meat bones
Often includes vegetables for additional flavor

Soup stocks may be made from
Scratch
Purchased soup "bases"
Look for bases with meat, NOT salt as the first ingredient

Bouillon

Consommé

sauces

a flavored, thickened liquid. it is usually formed by adding seasonings, flavorings, and a thickening agent to stock.

pan gravy

A sauce made by deglazing pan drippings from roast meat or poultry and combining them with a roux or other starch and stock.

fumet

a stock made with fish bones or shells from shellfish and vegetables simmered in a liquid with flavorings

court bouillon

water simmering with vegetables , seasonings and an acidic product such as vinegar or wine; used for simmering or poaching fish, shellfish or vegetables

standard mirepoix

50% Onion; 25% celery; 25% carrot

white mirepoix

mirepoix that does not include carrots and may include chopped mushroom (and mushroom trimming), parsnips. It is used for pale or white sauces and stocks

cartilage

a connective tissue that is more flexible than bone and that protects the ends of bones and keeps them from rubbing together

connective tissue

tissue of mesodermal origin consisting of e.g. collagen fibroblasts and fatty cells

collagen

a fibrous scleroprotein in bone and cartilage and tendon and other connective tissue

gelatin

a colorless water-soluble glutinous protein obtained from animal tissues such as bone and skin

degrease/ skim

to remove greasiness from a sauce, soup, or stock by skimming the top with a spoon

deglaze

To swirl or stir a liquid (usually wine or stock) in a pan to dissolve cooked food particles remaining on the bottom or "fond"; the resulting mixture often becomes the base for a sauce.

remouillage

French word for "rewetting"; a stock produced by reusing the bones left from making another stock. After draining the original stock from the stockpot, add fresh mirepoix, a new sachet and enough water to cover the bones and mirepoix, and a second stock can be made. A remouillage is treated like the original stock; allow it to simmer for four to five hours before straining. A remouillage will not be as clear or as flavorful as the original stock, however. It is often used to make glazes or in place of water when making stocks.

sweat

condensation of moisture on a cold surface

mother sauces

bechamel, espagnole, tomato, hollandaise, veloute

compound sauces

leading sauces w/ accessory and/or auxillary elements added
-accessory element: added to sauce for flavor

coulis

Vegetable sauce made from a puree of vegetables or fruit that can be served hot or cold

beurre blanc

french for "white butter"; an emulsified butter sauce made from shallots, white wine and butter

beurre rouge

French for "red butter"; an emulsified butter sauce made from shallots, red wine and butter

slurry

a mixture of raw starch and cold liquid used for thickening.

reduction

the act of reducing or the amount by which something is reduced

white roux

cooked for a few minutes, enough to cook out the raw flavor of the flour. stop cooking before the color begins to change. used for bechamel and other white sauces

blond roux

Cooked slightly longer than white roux and should begin to take on a little color as the flour caramelizes. Used in ivory-colored sauces, such as veloute, or where a richer flavor is desired.

roux

the principle means used to thicekn sauces. combination of equal parts, by weight, of flour and fat, cooked together to form a paste

temper

harden by reheating and cooling in oil

bechamel

A white sauce made by thickening milk with white roux. Basic bechamel is one of the mother sauces, one of the five mother sauces, comprised of a roux thickened with milk, flavored with an onion pique and nutmeg. Ratio: 1 lb white roux to 1 gallon milk

veloute

A leading sauce made by thickening a white stock (fish, veal, or chicken) with roux.

espagnole

A leading sauce made of brown stock, mirepoix, and tomatoes thickened with brown roux; often used to produce demi-glace

demi-glace

a basic sauce made from white or brown stock used in the preparation of derivitive sauces (typcally veal stock reduced by half)

tomato sauce

sauce made with a puree of tomatoes (or strained tomatoes) with savory vegetables and other seasonings

hollandaise sauce

Sauce made of egg yolks, butter, lemon and vinegar; can be served over eggs benedict.

Jus lie

Also know as Fond lie; a sauce made by thickening brown stock with cornstarch or similar starch; often used like a demi-glace, especially to produce small sauces

gastrique

caramelized sugar deglazed with vinegar; used to flavor tomato or savory fruit sauces

emulsion

A mixture of two or more substances that are not capable of blending

glace de viande

A dark, syrupy meat glaze made by reducing a brown stock.

glacage

browning or glazing a food, usually under a salamander or broiler

beurre noir

French for "black butter"; used to describe whole butter cooked until dark brown (not black); sometimes flavored with vinegar or lemon juice, capers and parsley and served over fish, eggs and vegetables

beurre noisette

clarified butter browned slowly and seasoned with vinegar or lemon juice and capers

maitre d hotel

headwaiter

chutney

chopped fruits or green tomatoes cooked in vinegar and sugar with ginger and spices

tea

tannic acid

flavored oil

enhanced with herbs, spices, garlic

pesto

Fine blend of fresh basil, garlic, olive oil, walnuts, pine nuts, parsley and Romano cheese

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