Notes - Intro to English Linguistics

28 terms by bwees Plus

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Prescriptive Rule

What SHOULD occur in a language as opposed to what actually does.

Descriptive Rule

What DOES occur in a language as opposed to what should.

Metathesis

When sound switch places in a word. "aks" to "ask".

Signifier

meaningful sting of sounds. "d-o-g".

Signified

The thing represented by the signifier. "The actual dog."

Grimm's Law and Sir William Jones

System of sound correspondences. (think cognates)

Phoneme

Smallest unit of sound. (distinguish meaning)

Allophones

Variants of a phoneme. (puck and cup)

consonants

block airflow

vowels

dont block airflow

labial

puh and buh words

minimal pairs

one is voiced and the other is not.

obstrucants

stops, fricatives, and fricates. (obstruction in your mouth)

Sonorant

Nasals, liquids, glides.

Tense vowels are long

...

Lax vowels are short

...

Great Vowel Shift

Around c. 1300

Allomorphs

/t/, /id/, /d/, /z/, /s/, /Iz/ (plurals)
will be /z/ if word ends in a vowel
/Iz/ if word ends in a sibilant (/ch/ or /dg/)
/s/ if noun ends in a voiceless sound.

Morphemes

Bound and free. bound have to be attached to a word (suffixes) and free are actual words/

Past Tense Marker

/d/, /t/, /Id/

Ablaut

Vowel variation. (sing, sang, sung.)

plural

/s/, /z/, /Iz/

Past Participle Ending

-en, -ed.

Indefinite Article

a, an

Zero plural

deer, sheep, fish (used to be fishes).

Closed class morphemes

free, but do not combine. (and, the, a)

Derivational Morphemes

A bound or free morpheme that forms a new word. (uptalk). Changes noun to a verb, etc. -ly, -age, -ness, a-, im-, in-.

Inflectional Morphemes

indicates something about a word's grammatical function such as number or tense. suffixes, plurals, conjugations, etc.

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