What SHOULD occur in a language as opposed to what actually does.
What DOES occur in a language as opposed to what should.
When sound switch places in a word. "aks" to "ask".
meaningful sting of sounds. "d-o-g".
The thing represented by the signifier. "The actual dog."
Grimm's Law and Sir William Jones
System of sound correspondences. (think cognates)
Smallest unit of sound. (distinguish meaning)
Variants of a phoneme. (puck and cup)
dont block airflow
puh and buh words
one is voiced and the other is not.
stops, fricatives, and fricates. (obstruction in your mouth)
Nasals, liquids, glides.
Tense vowels are long
Lax vowels are short
Great Vowel Shift
Around c. 1300
/t/, /id/, /d/, /z/, /s/, /Iz/ (plurals)
will be /z/ if word ends in a vowel
/Iz/ if word ends in a sibilant (/ch/ or /dg/)
/s/ if noun ends in a voiceless sound.
Bound and free. bound have to be attached to a word (suffixes) and free are actual words/
Past Tense Marker
/d/, /t/, /Id/
Vowel variation. (sing, sang, sung.)
/s/, /z/, /Iz/
Past Participle Ending
deer, sheep, fish (used to be fishes).
Closed class morphemes
free, but do not combine. (and, the, a)
A bound or free morpheme that forms a new word. (uptalk). Changes noun to a verb, etc. -ly, -age, -ness, a-, im-, in-.
indicates something about a word's grammatical function such as number or tense. suffixes, plurals, conjugations, etc.