ANPS Exam 1: Lab 1/2 Q's

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electron

Which of the three subatomic particles has the smallest mass?

cohesion

is an attraction between like molecules
-result of hydrogen bonding between water molecules
-water molecules are attracted to each other
-a drop of water spilled on a table forms a drop on the table, rather than spreading out over the surface

adhesion

an attraction between different kinds of molecules
- result of hydrogen bonding between water molecules and another type of molecule.
-water molecules cling to plant cell walls
- water molecules cling to the side of a beaker

surface tension

measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
-result of hydrogen bonding between water molecules
-water strider runs across a pond without breaking the surface
-sewing needle floats when it is placed gently on tope of water in a bucket

Specific heat

the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temperature by 1 . Specific heat may be written in several different units including joules per gram of substance per degree Celsius () or calories per gram of substance per degree Celsius ().

Substance with high specific heat

-requires more heat to change the temperature of the substance
-more resistant to temperature change
-most likely to exhibit hydrogen bonding

substance with a low specific heat

-requires less heat to change the temperature of the substance
-less resistant to temperature change
-least likely to exhibit hydrogen bonding`

Ionic bond

chemical bond resulting from the attraction between atoms that have acquired a charge due to losing or gaining one or more electrons

covalent bond

chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons

hydrogen bond

a weak chemical bond that is formed when the partially positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the partially negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule

The hydrogen atom of one water molecule is attracted to the oxygen atom of a different water molecule.
-The oxygen atom of a water molecule has a partial negative charge.

Which statements about hydrogen bonding are true?

Carbohydrate

more commonly known as sugars, are made of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms, arranged as chains of carbon atoms with hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. There are two types of carbohydrates: simple sugars and complex sugars. Simple sugars have the general formula

monosaccharides

which carbohydrate cannot be hydrolyzed?

polysaccharide

A carbohydrate that yields many monosaccharides when hydrolyzed is a _____

disaccharide

lactose, the sugar in milk, is a _____

tertiary structure

At what level of protein structure do -sheets of amino acids and -helices, located at a distance from each other along the length of a polypeptide chain, come together to form a globular protein?

primary structure

describes the order of amino acids in the peptide chain

secondary structure

describes the basic three-dimensional structures, -helices and -sheets

quaternary structure

results from individual proteins coming together to form multi-subunit protein complexes.
-come together to catalyze the hydrolysis reaction

activation energy

is the initial investment of energy needed to start a reaction. It is the amount of energy that the reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start.

slower

the higher the activation energy the________ the reaction

temperature, pH, inorganic ions and vitamins

Which factors affect enzyme activity?

denatured

when an enzyme loses its native conformation and its biological activity

catalyst

it speeds up chemical reactions without being used

specific

an enzyme has the ability to recognize the shape of a particular molecule

cofactor

binds to an enzyme and plays a role in catalysis, such as a vitamin

complex

when properly aligned, the enzyme and substrate form an enzyme -subtrate_____

active site

substrate binds to an enzyme at the ______ where the reactions occurs

substrate

in a catalyzed reaction a reactant is called____

complementary sequence

Each of the four nucleotides found in DNA has one complementary partner. Adenine () always pairs with thymine () and guanine () always pairs with cytosine () on the complementary DNA strand. The two complementary strands always pair up, each strand running in opposite directions. Below is an example of a DNA sequence and its complement.
Sequence
Complement

selective permeability

The plasma membrane allows nutrients to enter the cell and keeps undesirable substances out of the cell. It also allows wastes to pass out of the cell and keeps valuable cell proteins inside the cell. This property is called ________.

It is a dynamic fluid structure that is in constant flux.

Which of the following statements correctly describes the plasma membrane?

they are whiplike, motile cellular extensions that occur in large numbers on the exposed surfaces of certain cells.

Which of the following is characteristic of cilia?

If cilia are paralyzed then mucus-containing particles, including bacteria, will remain in the lungs and may cause a respiratory infection.

Your patient has a respiratory disease that has literally paralyzed the cilia. Why would this patient be at an increased risk for a respiratory infection?

lysosomes

contain acid hydrolases that are potentially dangerous to the cell
-digestion of foreign material

peroxisomes

contain enzymes that break down hydrogen peroxide.
absorb and break down fatty acids, generating hydrogen peroxide in the process.
are produced from other peroxisomes.
are more abundant in cells with higher metabolic rates
are able to detoxify substances by enzymatic action

sends transport vesicles to the RER

Which of the following statements about the Golgi apparatus is false?

mitochondria

The cristae increase the inner surface area of the organelle.
The matrix contains metabolic enzymes involved in energy production.
aerobic cellular Respiratory enzymes are attached to the surface of the cristae.
-produce most of a cell's ATP.

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

synthesis of steroid hormones.
synthesis of triglycerides.
detoxification of drugs.
-storage and release of calcium ions

steroid hormones

Examination of a sample of glandular cells reveals an extensive network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Which of the following is the likeliest product of these cells?

cells with large numbers of mitochondria have a high energy demand.

Some cells contain large numbers of mitochondria while others have relatively few or none. This suggests that:

synthesis of the cell's membranes

Which of the following is a function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

microvilli

Which structures are fingerlike projections that greatly increase the absorbing surface of cells?

organelles, inclusions

________ carry out specific functions inside cells, whereas ________ store glycogen, lipids, pigments, and other substances.

rough endoplasmic reticulum

This organelle stores and transports proteins, and synthesizes phospholipids and cholesterol.

centriole

The electron microscope has revealed that one of the components within the cell consists of microtubules arranged to form a hollow tube. This structure is a ________.

loss of cell shape and movement of cellular organelles

Research shows that neurofibrillary tangles are the primary cause of Alzheimer's disease. Neurofibrillary tangles are associated with microtubules. What may happen if microtubules collapse to cause Alzheimer's disease?

histones

In order for the DNA molecule to get "short and fat" to become a chromosome, it must first wrap around small molecules called ________.

Passive Processes

facilitated diffusion
osmosis
filtration

equilibrium

When the solutes are evenly distributed throughout a solution, we say the solution has reached _______.

Plasma Membrane

differentially permeable
selectively permeable
semipermeable

facilitated diffusion

which of the following requires a membrane-bound carrier for transport?

kinetic energy of the solute

For solutes that are membrane permeable, which of the following does NOT affect the rate of diffusion?

simple diffusion

In this activity, the solutes were transported through the dialysis membrane by _______.

carrier proteins

They can become saturated if the maximum transport rate is exceeded.
They are found integrated into the plasma membrane.
They might have to change shape slightly to accommodate a solute.

facilitated diffusion

The movement requires a carrier protein.
The movement of the solute is passive.
The movement of the solute is with its concentration gradient.

hydrophilic
lipid insoluble
too large to pass

why a solute would require facilitated diffusion?

increasing the steepness of the concentration gradient

Which would increase the rate of facilitated diffusion?

move solutes with their concentration gradient

simple diffusion and facilitates diffusion both____

decreasing the # of carrier proteins

Which of the following would decrease the rate of facilitated diffusion?

the max rate of transport will occur

What happens to facilitated diffusion when the protein carriers become saturated?

Osmosis

It is passive.
It is specific for the movement of water.
It is a type of diffusion.

Hypertonic

the concentration of solutes that a cell is bathed in

water will move toward the more concentrated solutes

If a membrane is impermeable to solutes, which of the following is true?

mm hg

osmotic pressure

the cell will shrink

A cell is immersed in a beaker of solution. The cell membrane is permeable to water but impermeable to solutes. If the intracellular concentration is 10 mM and the solution is 20 mM, which of the following is true?

toward the albumin

With the experimental conditions set at the 200 MWCO membrane in place, 10 mM glucose and 9 mM albumin, which of the following is true?

out of the cell, against gradient

What is the normal direction of calcium transport via the calcium pump?

hydrolysis of ATP

What is the energy source used by the calcium pump during its normal operation?

high Na+ concentration in the extracellular fluid; high K+ concentration in the cytoplasm

What concentration gradients are established and maintained by the sodium-potassium exchange pump?

Three Na+ ions are transported out of the cell.

Which of the following occurs during a single cycle of the sodium-potassium exchange pump?

The Na+ concentration would decrease and the K+ concentration would increase.

The hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) increases the pumping rate of the sodium-potassium exchange pump in skeletal muscles. How would you expect this to affect the concentration of Na+ and K+ in the muscle cytoplasm?

Lipid-insoluble solutes can be transported and a carrier protein is required .

Which of the following can be true of both active transport and facilitated diffusion?

symporters

Coupled transporters that move solutes in the same direction are called _______.

The concentration of potassium is higher inside the cell.

Which of the following describes the concentration of ions when the cell is at rest?

ATP hydrolysis

Which of the following is the driving force for the sodium-potassium pump?

increasing the number of membrane pumps

Which of the following increased the rate of sodium-potassium transport?

K is moved into the cell

Which of the following describes the movement of ions by the sodium-potassium pump?

facilitated diffusion

What is the type of transport supplied by the glucose carriers in the activity?

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