Sociology Test 1

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Dr. Fortner's Class

What is Sociology?

The scientific stific study of social behavior and human groups.

What is Sociological Imagination?

A particular type of critical thinking. An awareness of the relationship between an indiidual and the wider society, both today and in the past..

Why is Sociology considered a science?

Social Science: The study of the social features of humans and the ways in which they interact and change.

Auguste Comte

(1798-1857) - Coined "Sociology". Believed that a theoretical science of society and a systematic investigation of behavior were needed to improve society.
Most influential of the philosopers of the early 1800s.

Harriet Martineau

(1802-1876) Translated Comte. Observations of customs and social practices of Britian and USA. Wrote Society in America - special attention to social class distinctions, gender and race. Wrote first book on Sociological Methods.

Emile Dirkheim

(1858-1917) Pioneering contributions including theoretical work on suicide. One of first sociology professors in France. A. Insistence that behavior must be understood within a larger social context, not just in individualistic terms. B. Consequences of work in modern societies: ANOMIE - loss of direction felt in a socieity when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective (suicide). C. Concerned about the dangers that alienation, lonliness and isolation might pose for modern industrial socieites

Anomie

Emile Dirkheim: The loss of direction felt in a socieity when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective. Often occurs in times of profound social change, when people have lost their sense of purpose or direction. People are so confused and unable to cope with the new social environment that they may resort to suicide.

Herbert Spencer

(1820-1903) Did not feel compelled to correct ro improve society, wanted to understand it better. Relied on Darwin's "On the Origins of Species" to explain how socieities change or evolve over time. Argued it's natural (survival of the fittest) that some people are rich while others are poor.

Max Weber ("Vay-ber")

(1864-1920) We cannot analyse our social behavior by the same type of objective criterial we use to measure weight and temperature. To fully comprehend behavior, we must learn the subjective meanings people attach to their actions - how they themselves view and explain their behavior. Credited for key concept IDEAL TYPE.

Ideal Type

Max Weber ("Vay-ber"): A construct or model for evaluating specific cases.

Karl Marx

(1818-1883) The Commuist Manifesto that argued that the masses of people with no resources other than their labor (proletariat) should unite to fight for the overthrow of the capitalist (elite) societies. Emphasized the "group" identifications and associations that influence an "individual's" place in society.

Sociologist that applied the concept of evolution to societies:

Herbert Spenser

Instructor asked students to make lists of the characteristics of the best and worst teachers. These lists are an example of what.

No answer here. Says we will understand when we see the question on the test....

W.E.B. DuBois (doo-boyss)

(1868-1963) Black. Believed that knowledgw was essential in combating prejudice and achieving tolerance and justice. Indepth urban life studies of what and black in Philiadelphia and Atlanta. Saw importance of religion to society. Cofounding NAACP. DOUBLE CONSCIOUSNESS

Double Consciousness

W.E.B. DuBois (doo-boyss): the division of an individual's identity into 2 or more social realities

Freiderich Engles

(1820-1895) Lifelong friend Carl Marx

Proletariate and Elite class

Marx & Engles: Those that "have" and those that "have not". People with and people without. Exploiters- the owners of the means of production & Exploited - the workers.

Early female sociologists were often active in poor urban areas as leaders of community centers known as what.

Jane Addams: Settlement Houses

Although some early sociologists saw themselves as social reformers, by the middle of the 20th century the focus shifted to what?

Sociologist for the most part restricted themselves to theorizing & gathering information. The aim of transforming socieity was left to social workers and activists. The shift away from social reform was accompanied by growing commitment to scientifific methods of research.

Macrosociology

Macro-level. Concentrates on large scale phenomena or entire civilizations.

Microsociology

Micro-level. Concentrates on small group and individual level phenomena.

3 Major Theoretical Perspectives

This organizes empirical observations (explains) and acts as a guide for future observations (predicts)
1. Fuctionalist Perspective
2. Interactionist Perspective
3. Conflict Perspective

Functionalist Perspective (Major Theoretical Perspectives)

(MACRO) Thinking of society as a living organism in which each part of the organism contributes to its survival.
KEY DESCRIPTORS: STABILITY, ROLES, TRADITIONAL ROLES

Interactionist Perspective (Major Theoretical Perspectives)

(MICRO) aka Symbolic Interactionist. Generalize about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole. Behavior in small groups.
KEY DESCRIPTORS: SMALL UNITS, INDIVIDUALS, PERSPECTIVES, CASE BY CASE

Conflict Perspective (Major Theoretical Perspectives)

(MACRO) Sees a social world in continual struggle. Assumes that social behavior is best understood in therms of tehsion between groups over power or the allocation of resources, including housing, money, access to service, and political representation.
KEY WORDS: INSTABILITY, POWER, STRUGGLE

What theoretical perspective approach would view SPORTS as an agent for defining peoples social positions as players coaches, etc.

Interactionist. (key word DEFINING) Says will be on test.

What sociologist is the founder of Interactionst perspective?

George Herbert Mead

______________ is using sociology with the intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior.

Effective Sociological Research or The Research Process or Sociological Studies

What is the Scientific Method?

DEFINE the problem
REVIEW the literature
Formulate a testable HYPOTHESIS
Select a RESEARCH DESIGN and collect analyze data
Develope the CONCLUSION

Levels of analysis

MICRO: looking at individuals
MACRO: looking at communities or large groups

What is Operational Definition

An explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to assess the concept. EX: Sociologist interested in status might use membership in exclusive social clubs as an operational definition of "status".

The statement Women who recieve welfare are less likely than other women to have babies is a statement of what.

Hypothesis

Coorelation

The relationship between 2 variables whereby a change in 1 coincides with a change in the other

Different Types of Samples

(Collecting and Analyzing Data) Data can be collected by:
Surveys
Observation
Experiments
Use Existing Sources

Which of the following would be a valid measurement of an indivdual's intelligence

No answer here. Says we will understand when we see the question on the test....

Importance of Literature Review

Researchers refine the problem under study, clarify possible techniques to be used in collecting data, and eliminate or reduce avoidable mistakes.

Hypothesis

A speculative statement about the relationship between two or more factors called Variables

Variable (s)

A measureable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions. Independant Variable:

Independent Variable

The variable hypothesized to cause or invluence another variable. Example: Availability of affordable housing (Independent Variable x) affects the level of homelessness in a community (the Dependant Variable y)

Dependant Variable

Its action depends on the influence of the independant variable. Example: Availability of affordable housing (Independent Variable x) affects the level of homelessness in a community (the Dependant Variable y)

Content Analysis

The systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by rationale.

Research Design

A detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically.

Surveys

A type of Research Design: A study, generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire, that provides researchers with information about how people think and act.

2 main forms of the survey

The Interview
The Questionnaire

Qualitative Research

Relies on what is seen in the field and naturalistic settings and often focuses on small grupus and communities rather than on a large grupus or whole nations.

Quantitative Research

Collecting and reporting data primarily in numerical form.

When was Sociologist Code of Ethics published?"

1971

At conclusion of research of homelessness in Chicago, which Sociologist stated that in the short term, good social research will often be greeted as a betrayal of one or another side.

Rossi

Culture

The totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior.

Cultural Universal

A common practice or belief found in every culture.

Ethnocentricity

The tendancy to assume that one's own culture and way of life are superior to all others.

Counterculture

A subculture that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture.

Cultural Genocide

The systematic destruction of a group's culture.

Cultural Relativism

The viewing of people's behavior from the perspective of their culture.

Culture industry

The worldwide media industry that standardizes the goods and services demanded by consumers.

Culture lag

A period of maladjustment when the nonmatterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions.

Culture shock

The feeling of surprise and disorientation that people experience when they encounter cultural practices that are different from their own,

Culture war

The polorization of society over controversial cultural elements.

Cultural Diffusion (Diffusion)

The process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society.

Material culture

The physical or technological aspects of our daily lives.

Nonmaterial culture

Ways of using material objects, as well as customs, beliefs, philosophies, governments, and patterns of communication.

McDonalization of Society

George Ritzer: term used to describe how the principles of fast-food restaurants, developed in the United States, have come to dominate more and more sectors of societies throughout the world. Associated with melding of cultural, thru which we see more and more similarities in cultural expression. Menus, efficencies, Drive thru,

Subculture

A segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of customs, rules, and traditions that differs from the pattern of the larger society.

Ethnography

The study of an entire social setting through extended systematic observation.

Observation

Investigators who collect information through direct participation and or by closely watching a group or community.

Sample

a selection from a larger population that is statistically representative of that population

Random Sample

Every member of an entire population being studied has the same chance of being selected.

Snowball or Convenience Samples

Recruiting participants for surveys through word of mouth or by posting notices on the Internet. (survey topic may involve clandestined activities, drugs, murder, felony activities, etc.)

Validity

The degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study.

Reliability

Refers to the extent to which a measure produces consistent results.

Secondary Analysis

Refers to a variety of research techniques that make use of previously collected and publicaly accessible information and data.

Language

An abstract system of word meanings and sybols for all aspects of culture. It includes speech, written characters, numbers, symbols, nonverbal gestures and expressions.

Sapire-Whorf Hypothesis

Describes the role of of language in shaping our interpretaion of reality. Because people can conceptualize the world only through language, language PRECEDES thought. Language is not a given. It is culturally determeined.

Norms

The established standards of behavior maintained by a society.

Mores (Mor-ays)

Norm deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society. Each society demands obedience to its mores. Violations can lead to severe penalties. USA: murder, treason, child abuse.

Folkways

Norms governing everyday behavior. Play an important role is shaping the daily behavior of members of a culture. Walking up a down escalator challenges our standards of behavior, but won't result in a fine or jail.

2006 Walmart had to pull out of ___________ due to failure to adjust to the culture.

Germany

Attacks on bilingualism represents ethnocentrism.

What kind of CONFLICT is this?

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