ANPS Exam 1: Lab 3/4 Q's

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proteins

mRNA is needed to synthesize ________ in the cytoplasm.

tRNA

As each codon arrives at the active site of a ribosome, it attracts another molecule containing the anticodon. This molecule is called

codon

The set of three nucleotides on the mRNA strand that are read by the ribosome is termed the _______.

DNA polymerase

Which of the following builds new strands of DNA?

The leading strand is built continuously, and the lagging strand is built in pieces.

Which statement best describes strand characteristics as it relates to DNA replication?

T

During DNA replication, which nucleotide will bind to an A nucleotide in the original or parental DNA strand?

DNA ligase

Which protein joins together the Okazaki fragments of DNA in the lagging strand?

DNA replication

The two strands of original or parental DNA are separated during DNA replication.

Because the two strands of original or parental DNA run in opposite directions, the new strands must be made in different ways.
DNA polymerase III builds a new strand by adding DNA nucleotides one at a time.
The lagging strand is made of a series of fragments that must be joined together to make a continuous strand.

Interphase

During which phase of the cell cycle does DNA duplication, or replication, take place?

chromatids

When a double helix of DNA is replicated, two complete helices are formed. Together, these helices are called sister __________.

Metaphase

During which phase of mitosis do sister chromatids line up at the center of the cell?

Anaphase

ring which phase of mitosis do the sister chromatids move apart?

telophase

During which phase of mitosis do nuclear envelopes and the nucleoli reappear?

prophase

During which phase of mitosis do the nuclear envelope and nucleoli disappear?

cytokinesis

What is the name of the process by which the cytoplasm divides in two?

kinetochore

Which structure is described as a raised region on the centromere, where the spindle fibers attach to the chromatids?

interphase

At which stage are the DNA strands loosely coiled?

replication, transcription, translation

The duplication of DNA is called ________, the copying of DNA to mRNA is called ________, and the reading of the mRNA by the cell to make a protein is called ________ .

translation

The process of protein formation directed by mRNA is called

transcription

The process of forming mRNA is called

RNA

Ribosomes are composed of a protein and

tRNA

Amino acids are transferred to the ribosome to be incorporated into a growing polypeptide chain by ________.

mRNA

__________ function(s) as the template during translation.

RNA polymerase

Which enzyme transcribes DNA?

mRNA

Transcription directly results in the formation of __________.

Its DNA must be replicated exactly so that identical copies of the cell's genes can be passed on to each of its offspring.

What must happen before a body cell can divide?

tRNA

The RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the "factory" site for protein formation is ________.

multiple enzymes; three types of RNA

Specific proteins are manufactured through the interaction of ________ and ________.

edited to remove introns and transported into the cytoplasm.

Before the mRNA transcribed from a gene can be used to translate into a protein, it must be

tRNA

The molecule that brings the proper amino acid into place at the ribosome for the elongation of a new protein is called

triplet, codon, anticodon

The unit of DNA that specifies a certain amino acid is called a ________, the same unit of mRNA is called a ________ which, during protein synthesis, is matched by the ________ of tRNA.

3, 1, 6, 2, 5, 4

Put the following steps of protein synthesis in correct order of occurrence:
1. mRNA is produced in nucleus
2. ribosome moves along mRNA
3. DNA uncoils for transcription
4. polypeptide is produced
5. tRNA brings amino acids to ribosome
6. mRNA moves to ribosome

indicates the sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule

A gene is a set of specific instructions that

nuclear pores

Transfer of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytosol occurs through ________.

RNA polymerase

The enzyme ________ is required for the synthesis of mRNA.

epiphysis, secondary ossification site

Migration of osteoblasts into the ___________ creates the __________.

hematoma

Which of the following is formed immediately after a fracture?

primary ossification center

Migration of blood vessels into the central region of the cartilage bone model, starting bone development, occurs at which site?

intercondylar fossa

Which of the following separates the medial and lateral condyles?

large tendons

What attaches to the greater trochanter and lesser trochanter?

cranium

Which bone of the axial skeleton protects the brain?

clavicles and scapulae

The pectoral girdle consists of which of the following bones?

maxillary bones

Which facial bone supports the upper teeth?

vomer bone

Which bone forms the lower part of the bony nasal septum?

lambdoid suture

Which suture connects the parietal bone to the occipital bone?

temporal

Which bone contains the mastoid process, styloid process, and external acoustic meatus?

supraorbital foramen

Which opening (hole) is located above the eye socket?

22

How many total bones are there in the face and cranium?

sinusitis

Heather has been feeling sick lately with a stuffy nose and thick, yellowish mucus. She thinks she has a cold as she's been coughing and feeling tired and achy in the upper jaw and teeth. The over-the-counter medicines she's been taking to relieve such symptoms are not helping at all though. In fact, she has recently developed a terrible headache. Feeling helpless, she made an appointment with her family physician. After learning Heather's history of symptoms and examining her face thoroughly, the physician asked if her headache worsened with light exposure or loud noises. Heather responded "No." What was the physician's likely diagnosis?

deviated septum

Craig has always led a healthy lifestyle, and has played football for many years through high school and college. Having suffered many injuries to the face from his athletic activities, he now often experiences headaches and chronic inflammation and congestion of the paranasal sinuses. Based on the given information, which is most likely the primary cause of Craig's chronic condition?

kyphosis

Bonnie suffers from severe osteoporosis. For many years, she has ignored her deficiency and has not adjusted her diet or lifestyle. As a result, her thoracic curvature has become exaggerated posteriorly. What vertebral column distortion is exhibited?

lordosis

A very active 40-year-old man became ill and inactive for several months. As a result, he became depressed and gained 75 pounds. He now complains of severe back pain and associated musculoskeletal issues, and he exhibits an enlarged abdomen that protrudes abnormally. Which vertebral column distortion has he developed?

thoracic and sacral

which areas represent the primary curvatures of the spine?

clavicle

The pectoral girdle is formed from the scapula and the _______.

linea aspera

What is the name of the prominent elevation that runs along the center of the posterior surface of the femur?

8

How many carpal bones are in the wrist?

scapula and humerus

The glenohumeral joint joins which two bones?

fibula

Which bone is slender and parallels the tibia?

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