chapter 10 muscles

65 terms by shereenweaver 

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lever

rigid bar that moves on a fixed point

fulcrum

fixed point

effort

force is applied to fulcrum

load

resistance from effort

fusiform muscles

spindle-shaped muscles

convergent

has a broad origin and its fascicles converge toward a single tendon of insertion

circular

fascicles are arranged in concentric rings

pennate

short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of the muscle

mechanical advantage

small effort exerted over a relatively large distance can be used to move a large load over a small distance

mechanical advantage

power lever

mechanical disadvantage

the load is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied near the fulcrum the force exerted by a muscle must be greater than the load to be moved or supported

mechanical disadvantage

speed lever

first class lever

the effort is applied at one end of the lever and the load is at the other, with the fulcrum somewhere between. (speed and distance)

first class lever

scissors

first class lever

raising your head off your chest

second class lever

the effort is applied at one end of the lever and the fulcrum is located at the other, with the load between them (strength)

second class lever

wheelbarrow

second class lever

tiptoes

third class levers

the effort is applied between the load and the fulcrum

third class levers

tweezers

third class levers

flexing the forearm to the biceps brachii

lever

bone

fulcrum

joint

effort

muscle

third class levers

tend to be thicker and more powerful

parallel

the long axes of the fascicles run parallel to the long axis of the muscle

frontalis

Orgin: cranial aponeruosis IN: skin and muscles around eye and nose

orbicularis oculi

OR: maxillary and frontal bone IN: skin around eye

orbicularis oris

OR: muscles near the mouth IN: skin around the mouth

Buccinator

OR: outer surface of the maxilla and mandible IN: oribicularis oris

zygomaticus

OR: zygomatic bone IN: skin and muscles around the mouth

Masseter

OR: zygomatic arch IN: mandible

temporalis

OR: temporal bone IN: mandibular coronoid process

sternocleidomastoid

OR:sternum and clavicle IN: mastoid process of temporal

trapezius

OR: occipital bone and all cervical and thoracic vertebra IN: spine of scapula and clavicle

external intercostals

OR: superior rib IN: inferior rib

internal intercostals

OR: inferior rib IN: superior rib

external oblique

OR: lower 8 ribs IN: iliac crest

internal oblique

OR: iliac crest IN: lower 3 ribs

transverse abdominus

OR: lower 6 ribs IN: crest of pubis

rectus abdominus

OR: crest of pubis IN: xiphoid process

rhomboideus major

OR: spines of upper thoracic vertebrae IN: medial border of scapula

infraspinatus

OR: posterior surface of scapula IN: greater tubercle of humerus

serratus anterior

OR: upper 9 ribs IN: vertebral border of scapula

deltoid

OR: accromion process/ spine of scapula/ clavicle IN: deltoid tuberosity of humerus

pectoralis major

OR:clavicle, sternum, 2nd and 6th costal cartilages IN: intertubercular groove of humerus

latissimus dorsi

OR: iliac crest IN: intertubular groove of humerus

teres major

OR: lateral border of scapula IN: intertubular groove of humerus

biceps brachii

OR: scapula IN: radial tuberosity

triceps brachii

OR: scapula, proximal humerus IN: olecrannon process of ulna

brachialis

OR:anterior humerus IN: coronoid process of ulna

extensor carpi and flexor carpi

OR: humerus IN: carpals and metacarpals

extensor digitorum and flexor digitorum

OR: humerus, radius, ulna IN: phalanges

illiposoas

OR: lumbar vertebra, ilium IN: lesser trochanter of femur

Gluteus maximus

OR: posterior ilium, sacrum IN: proximal femur

Gluteus medius

OR: ilium IN: greater trochanter of femur

adductor group

OR: pubis, ischium IN: femur and tibia

quadriceps femoris

OR: ilium, femur IN: patellar tendon that contiues as a ligament to the tibial tuberosity

hamstring group

OR: ischial tuberosity IN: lateral and medial tibia

sartorius

OR: ilium IN: medial tibia

gastrocnemius

OR: condyles of femur IN: calcaneus by way of achilles tendon

tibialis anterior

OR: condyles of tibia IN: tarsal and metatarsal bones

peroneus group

OR: fibula IN: tarsal and metatarsal bones

Soleus

OR: tibia, fibula IN: calcaneus

Flexor and extensor digitorum longus

OR: tibia, fibula IN: phalanges

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