ch.2 section 1,2

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developmental psych

Nurture is to ____; whereas, nature is to ____.

environment; genetics

_ are the basic units of hereditary information.

Genes

According to the text, what percentage of variation of intelligence is estimated to be the result of genetics?

50%

The normal process of cell replication is called _

mitosis

If an individual has schizophrenia, what is the probability that his dizygotic twin brother will also have schizophrenia?

about 18%

Which of the following subjects would be best for a research study that examines the concordance rate of intelligence?

identical twins to fraternal twins

Which of the following individuals illustrates a person who is closer to the lower portion of their reaction range?

Nathan, who was born with a potential IQ of 145 (gifted IQ), was raised in an educationally deprived environment, and is an unmotivated learner.

Scarr and McCartney proposed the theory of genotype → environment effects. From their theory, which subtype occurs when people seek out environments that correspond to their genotypic characteristics?

Active genotype → environment effects

If one proposes the heritability of IQ is .80, which of the following statements is correct?

A large portion of IQ is determined by genetics.

Fraternal twins are also known as

dizygotic twins

If temperament was genetically based, which of the following would have the greatest degree of similarity?

identical twins

Kendra is a professional singer who is the daughter of musical artists. Throughout her childhood, her parents encouraged and trained her to the best of their abilities. During school she enrolled in a specialized academy that continued to nurture her talent. Which of the following best describes Kendra's genotype?

Kendra's musical genes

Jack's father was an All-American in the 50M backstroke and qualified for the Olympic Team. Jack is a freshman in high school and does not think that he will need to train to become a member of the school's swim team. Jack keeps telling you that his father was a great swimmer, so he will also be a great swimmer. What do you think?

Jack might have the genotype for swimming, but he will need to train to become a great swimmer.

The average human cell has ____ chromosomes.

46

Due to advancements in fertility treatments, ____ have increased in recent times.

dizygotic twins

_ is a person's complete genetic makeup.

Genotype

is formed when the ovum and sperm unite and fertilization takes place.

The zygote

Complex molecules that make up chromosomes are known as

DNA

Keith and Carrie have been discussing how long they should wait to have children. At what age, statistically speaking, will Carrie run out of fertile ova?

40s

After ejaculation, sperm can live for ___ days inside the human body.

5?

is an example of an incomplete dominant inheritance.

HIV

Assume you have very close friends who are trying to get pregnant. To improve their odds you advise them that they should have intercourse when she is closer to ovulation and tell them that women generally ovulate ____ days into their menstrual cycles.

14

According to the text, what are the only cells in the human body that do not contain 46 chromosomes?

50% chance

If Frank has schizophrenia, how likely is it that his identical twin brother will also have schizophrenia?

...

Gametes are formed through what process?

Meiosis

Grant is 7 years old and has ambitions of becoming a professional basketball player. His father is 5' 7" tall and his mother is 5' 3" tall. It is quite likely that Grant will be 5' 7" tall or a little taller, but not of NBA height. Grant's genetic potential is known as _

...

Reaction range proposes ____ establish(es) boundaries, and ____ determines where a person falls within that range.

...

To improve the odds of fertilization occurring, intercourse should occur _

within two days before and on the day of ovulation

A person's ___ is/are their characteristics; whereas, a person's ____ is/are their genetic makeup.

phenotype; genotype

All ova (female eggs) contain which chromosome?

X

For women who are pregnant, heavy lifting, strenuous physical exertion, and continuous standing can raise the risk of

miscarriages, preterm birth, and stillbirth

provides a protective environment in which the fetus' temperature is regulated and protects the fetus from friction caused by the mother's movements.

the amnion

What is the last major organ system to develop during the fetal period?

lungs

Low iodine intake during pregnancy increases the risks of miscarriage, stillbirth, and abnormalities in fetal brain development. Since the 1920s, the United States has required table salt to have iodine, which is a similar practice to many countries that have economic wealth and resources. In what country is the lack of iodine most likely still an issue for pregnant women?

Cambodia, which is a developing country.

Your sister is pregnant. She has always been health-conscious and exercises regularly. She is planning on engaging in aerobic exercise by continuing to go to her exercise classes. What would be your advice to her? She should

exercise regularly as she will increase her ability to process oxygen

Samantha has always been a very active person and exercises regularly. During pregnancy she was concerned that maybe she was doing too much and it could be harmful for the fetus. Her physician told her that her exercise routine, which consisted of meditation, active stretching, yoga, and aerobic exercise, was fine. He even suggested that one of the activities positively stimulated her circulatory and muscular systems. According to the text, which of the following is Samantha's physician referring to?

Aerobic exercise

As compared to developed countries, ____ percent of maternal and infant deaths occur in developing countries.

99

There is a rumor that pregnant women should dramatically increase their caloric intake and "eat for two"; however, it is known that pregnant women need about ____ more calories than those who are not pregnant.

300

According to the text, when a pregnant mother becomes highly stressed a fetus may

develop a faster heart rate and move more frequently

By the 8th day after conception, the fertilized egg has approximately 100 cells and is known as the

blastocyst

During the embryonic period, the ectoderm develops to become

skin, hair, nails, sensory organs, and nervous system

After fertilization, the first 2 weeks of pregnancy is called

the germinal period

Which of the following enhances the health of a pregnant woman and the fetus?

Mild to moderate exercise

Aerobic exercise is important to pregnant women because it helps to

increase the woman's ability to process oxygen

is the embryonic structure that develops into the brain and spinal cord.

Neural tube

The embryonic disk forms from the _____ of the blastocyst and develops to become the embryo.

inner layer

Your niece is pregnant. She has heard that Kegel exercises are a good idea, but does not know how to perform them. Having a very close relationship, you would tell her to tense the

muscles of the vagina and anus repeatedly for 10-second intervals

Recent scientific studies have concluded that most women should gain ____ pounds during pregnancy.

25 to 35

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