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Juvenile Justice

free will

The view that youths are in charge of their own destinies and are able to make personal behavior choices unencumbered by environmental factors is called ____________________.

Cesare Beccaria

The writings of Jeremy Bentham and ____________________ formed the core of what is today referred to as the classical school of criminology.

Seriousness

Classical criminology argues that punishment should be only severe enough to deter a particular offense, and that punishments should be graded to the ____________________ of the crimes.

routine activites

____________________ theory views crime as a "normal" function of the how we live today.

predatory crime

Violent crimes against people, and crimes in which an offender attempts to steal an object directly from its holder are called ____________________.

general detterence

A crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties by punishing an individual so that others do not commit crime is called ____________________.

specific

Sending convicted offenders to secure incarceration facilities so that punishment is severe enough to convince offenders not to repeat their criminal activity is an example of ____________________ deterrence

situational crime prevention

The crime prevention method that relies on reducing the opportunity to commit criminal acts by making them more difficult to perform, reducing their reward and increasing their risks is called ____________________.

target hardening

The crime prevention practice that makes it more difficult for a would-be delinquent to carry out the illegal act, for example, by installing a security device in a home, would be ____________________.

criminal atavism

Lombroso's idea that delinquents manifest physical anomalies that make them biologically similar to our primitive ancestors is called ____________________.

cesare lombroso

According to the text, ____________________ is known as the father of criminology.

biosocial theory

The view that both thought and behavior have biological and social bases is called ____________________.

equipotentiality

The view that all people are equal at birth and are thereafter influenced by their environment is called ____________________.

arousal theorists

Delinquency experts who believe that aggression is a function of the level of an individual's needs for stimulation are called ____________________.

monozygotic

Research has shown that ____________________ twins are significantly closer in their personal characteristics.

Evolutionary

____________________ theory explains the existence of aggression and violent behavior as positive adaptive behaviors in human evolution.

id

According to Freud, the unrestrained, primitive, pleasure-seeking component of an individual is called the ____________________.

ego

According to Freud, the ____________________ develops through the reality of living in the world and helps manage and restrain the individual's need for immediate gratification.

superego

The ____________________ develops through interactions with parents and other significant people and represents the conscience and the moral rules shared by most adults.

Psychopath sociopath

A person lacking in warmth and affection and unable to learn from experience is known as a ____________________.

T

Choice theory suggests that young offenders choose to engage in antisocial activity because they believe their actions will be beneficial and profitable T/F.

T

Classical criminology holds that decisions to violate the law are weighed against possible punishments, and to deter crime the pain of punishment must outweigh the benefit of the illegal gain T/F.

T

Routine activities theory states that crime is a "normal" function of the patterns of everyday life T/F.

F

According to routine activities theory, the volume and distribution of predatory crime are influenced by the lack of capable guardians, the availability of suitable targets and the lack of access to quality education.

F

Situational crime prevention strategies are aimed at increasing the severity of punishment for criminal acts T/F.

T

Specific deterrence would include sending convicted offenders to secure incarceration facilities so that punishment is severe enough to convince offenders not to repeat their criminal activity T/F.

F

The origin of trait theory is generally credited to Cesare Beccaria T/F.

T

Situational crime prevention strategies aim to reduce the opportunities people have to commit particular crimes T/F.

T

Monozygotic (MZ) twins have delinquent and antisocial behavior patterns more similar than that of dizygotic (DZ) twins T/F.

T

According to Sigmund Freud, the id is the unrestrained, primitive, pleasure-seeking component of the human personality with which each child is born. It is counteracted by the superego T/F.

F

Sigmund Freud coined the term identity crisis to denote the period of inner turmoil and confusion between the id, ego and superego T/F.

T

Latent delinquents are youths whose troubled family life leads them to seek immediate gratification without consideration of right and wrong or the feelings of others T/F.

F

Children are more likely to heed what parents say than what they do T/F.

F

The view that behavior is modeled through observation, either directly through intimate contact with others, or indirectly through media is called the cognitive theory T/F.

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