he was a Federalist from Virginia who became the first President of the U.S. He was the only President with a unanimous vote; therefore, a second vote was necessary for the election of Vice President. He appointed a cabinet of advisors early in his presidency.
he was a Federalist vice president under Washington and became the second President of the U.S. His opponent, Thomas Jefferson, became vice president. He was a qualified president, but failed miserably. The end of his term marked the last time any Federalist became president.
he was the Secretary of State under Washington and vice president under John Adams. He was against the Federalists' policy of supporting only the aristocrats, and instead supported the common man. His supporters formed the Democratic-Republican Party.
he was a financial genius from New York and was Secretary of the Treasury under Washington. he made a financial plan that places America on firm financial ground.
Judiciary Act 1789
it created effective federal courts in a hierarchical order. There were city, country, and state courts, along with circuit courts, and the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court was the highest court in the U.S. The act defined each courts jurisdiction and method of appeal.
Tariff of 1789
this was the first law passed by Congress. It was designed to protect the infant industries of the U.S. by placing a duty of 8% on imports.
Hamilton's Financial Plan
it was created by Alexander Hamilton to stabilize the American economy. It consisted of federal assumption of all debts, including state and federal debts. Along with this, he proposed the chartering of the U.S. Bank to help restore American credit.
Report on the Bank and Manufactures 1790
it was a study made by Alexander Hamilton and was the basis for his financial plan. He stated that the future of the U.S. would be in industry and manufacturing. Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans opposed this because they wanted an agriculturally based nation.
Residence Act 1790
it authorized the president to choose the site for the capital that was not larger than 10 square miles.
U.S. Bank 1791
this bank was part of Alexander Hamilton's plan and was 80% privately owned and 20% government owned. It gave out loans to the aristocracy, paid government bills, printed money, and collected revenues. It had a capital stock of $10 million and served as a depositary for federal funds.
it referred to manual aid in legislative bodies (the House and Senate) to pass laws for the benefit of the country.
Whiskey Rebellion 1794
the small farmers of western Pennsylvania rose up in rebellion against an excise tax on whiskey. This tax fell heavily on farmers who condensed their corn to whiskey. They refused to pay the tax, attacked tax collectors, and began a march on Pittsburgh. President Washington sent 13,000, and the rebels' protest quickly ended.
this political part was formed by Jefferson and it opposed Alexander hamilton's Financial Plan. It supported the common man and espoused the belief that the best government was the one that governed the least.
Washington's Farewell Address 1797
he started the farewell address custom when he left office. It was published in the newspapers and primarily addressed domestic problems. He also stated that the U.S. should avoid any entanglement in European affairs and wars.
The Alien Act 1798
this act increased the residence requirements to become a citizen from 5 years to 14 years. It empowered the president to depart dangerous (anti-Federalist) foreigners and authorized the imprisonment of aliens during war.
The Sedition Act 1798
it stated that any opposition to the legal measures of the government or slander of the government could be punished by both a heavy fine and imprisonment.
Rule of 1756
in 1793, England announced that it would enforce the rule of 1756. This rule stated that trade closed during peace could not be opened during war. Under this rule the British navy seized 150 U.S. ships.
French Revolution 1789
reacting to the oppressive aristocracy, the French middle and lower classes overthrew the kind and asserted power for themselves in a violent and bloody revolution. This uprising was inspired by American's independence from England and the Enlightenment ideas.
he was a French statesman who came to American in search of monetary aid. He asked for private donations to France and recruited American privateers (pirates plundering for another country).
Neutrality Act 1793
France waged war against England and Spain in 1793 and sought the U.S. as their ally. Washington did not want to become entangled with European problems so he kept America out of the war.
Jay's Treaty 1794
this was the treaty between Spain and America, which required Britain to withdraw her troops from the Northwest Posts in exchange for many more concessions from America. The treaty was so unfavorable for the U.S. that it barely was ratified by the Senate.
Pinckney's Treaty (San Lorenzo) 1795
this treaty was between Spain and America and settled the Florida-Georgia border dispute by defining the border. It also removed the payment of tariffs by American ships at the port of New Orleans.
Right of Deposit
this was the right to pass through a port and trade goods without paying taxes. Westerners wanted this privilege at the port of New Orleans.
XYZ Affair 1797
during her war against other European nations, France began to seize goods from neutral American cargo ships. John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry, and C.C. Pinckney, U.S. representatives, attempted to meet with French Foreign Minister Talleyrand to settle the dispute. However, anonymous French ministers X, Y, and Z required a loan of 32 million florins and $250,000 in cash to even consider negotiations. Americans demanded war after this incident.
Convention of 1800 (Treaty of Morfontaine)
this treaty was between France and America and formally dissolved the Franco-American military alliance, but required the U.S. government to pay claims of $20 million to U.S. citizens. This was the start of a long-lasting peace with France.
the Shawnee Indians of the Ohio River Valley crushed the U.S. troops along the Wabash River. He was sent by the U.S. government to stop the Indians in the river valley. He chased the Shawnee to Fallen Timbers, where the Shawnee Indians surrendered in 1794.
Treaty of Greenville 1795
this treaty was between the Indians and the U.S. government and required the Indians to give up the Ohio River Valley to the U.S.
he was the third president of the U.S. and Aaron Burr was his vice president. He was a man who believed in and sympathized with the common man. He helped pave the way for real democracy in America.
he was Thomas Jefferson's vice presidential running mate in the elections of 1796 and 1800. He became the vice president in 1800 after the election was thrown to the House of Representatives.
he was the Secretary of the Treasury under Jefferson. While he was treasurer, he reduced the national debt.
Revolution of 1800
this referred to the election of Thomas Jefferson. The revolution was the change in the political parties from the "Federalist Reign of Terror" to the "Democratic-Republicans." It was considered a revolution because the Federalists actually stepped down from power.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions 1800
these were statements made by Thomas jefferson (Kentucky) and James Madison (Virginia) rebuking the Alien and Sedition Acts. This was the first expression of the doctrine of nullification.
the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions were attempts to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Compact Theory (States' Rights)
it was a belief that the federal government acted as the states' agent, that states can declare federal laws unconstitutional, and that federal laws may become null and void.
the saying "to the winner go the spoils" applies here. As the Democratic-Republican President, Jefferson fired Federalists from government positions and hired Democratic-Republicans to replace the, (Jefferson filtered out people with experience because of their political affiliations and replaced them with fellow party members).
Judiciary Act of 1801, Midnight Judges
the act created 16 new federal judgeships and other offices. This left Jefferson with a Federalist-dominated judicial system, composed of "Midnight Judges" that John Adams had hired supposedly on the last day of his term.
Justice Samuel Chase
he was one of the Midnight Judges put on trial for political reasons in 1805 by the Democratic-Republicans. The Senate refused to convict him.
Chief Justice John Marshall
he was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court for 33 years. He stopped jefferson from attacking Justices of the Supreme Court by making the Judiciary free from political attack.
this was the power given to the Supreme Court to decide the constitutionality of a law passed by Congress.
Tripolitan War 1801
this was an undeclared was during Jefferson's presidency against the Barbary pirates of the Mediterranean Sea. Because Jefferson was too thrifty to buy warships, he created "Mosquito Fleet," which was made up of light sailboats armed with 2 to 6 cannons.
he led the slaves of Santo Domingo, one of the Caribbean islands in rebellion against Napoleon's troops in 1802. This ended Napoleon's aspirations of a New France in the New World and prompted him to sell Louisiana.
Louisiana Purchase 1803
James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston purchased the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon for $15 million. This purchase doubled the size of the U.S. This purchase was an effort to secure New Orleans and provide land for future settlements westward.
Federalist Opposition to Purchase
the purchase of Louisiana meant that more agricultural states would be created, thus drawing workers away from the industry. This would reduce the Federalist's power in Congress and ruin the New England economy.
Lewis and Clark Expedition 1804-1806
Jefferson sent these two to investigate the resources the U.S. has acquired with the Louisiana Purchase. They crossed the Rockies and reached the Pacific Ocean by way of the Colombia River. They recorded types of wildlife, plants, and number of Indian tribes. They mapped the region and promoted fur trading.
he explored the headwaters of the Mississippi in 1805 and the southern Rockies in 1806.
he explored the Great Plains and coined the term, "The Great American Desert," which retarded development of the Great Plains for 50 years.
Hamilton-Burr Duel 1804
when Hamilton exposed vice president Burr's plot to separate the New England states from the union, Burr challenged him to a duel and killed Hamilton. Burr fled to the West so he could be among people who hated Hamilton.
Polly Case 1804
this was a case in England that allowed the U.S. to carry goods from the French West Indies to France even though England was at war with France.
Essex Case 1805
the English courts reversed their decision in the Polly case by holding that goods could not be shipped from the French West Indies to France through the U.S. 500 U.S. ships were seized under this law.
Burr Conspiracy 1805-1806
he proposed to separate the western states from the Union and form a new republic under English protection, but England refused to listen to his plan. Wilkinson informed Jefferson of his plans for treason and had him arrested.