What does the term "Middle Ground" refer to?
a geographical area where 2 groups of people interacted in, but neither could control the land.
* Which Indian nations belonged to the Iroquois Confederacy?
Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca, Onondaga & Fuscarora
Where did the Iroquois Confederacy primarily operate?
Western New York (including Ohio River Valley, Canada)
Why was the Iroquois Confederacy significant for European powers that were competing for control over North America?
Because of their location
What was so significant about the Iroquois Confederacy's location?
it was right in the middle of the french & english so they had more power over the 2.
Why were the Iroquois major losers @ the end of the French & Indian war?
British won so the British didn't need help from the Iroquois anymore
What is the major, overall reason why the French & Indian war is significant to American history?
one of the 1st major world wars
What were all of these major European wars that were fought mainly over?
the struggle for world dominance
The French & Indian war was different than all the other wars for what 2 reasons?
it was the final showdown between France & England for dominance over North America, and it was the only war to begin in North America
Why did FRANCE want to own the Ohio River Valley so badly?
to trade with indians, fur trading, strategic territory
Why did BRITAIN(english) want to own the Ohio River Valley so badly?
it was fertile & rich farmland ESPECIALLY Virginia
Both the French & English wanted full ownership over the ORV because of ______ potential and its abundance of ______.
economic, wildlife for fur
What was so important about the 2 rivers that joined & made the "forks of the ohio"?
Control of these rivers = control of the interior of the continent where the rivers flow.
Along with the Britain & France, what was the 3RD power trying to gain control over the ORV?
How old was George Washington when all of this drama with the iroquois & virginia company was happening?
in his 20's
in 1752, the governor of Virginia sent George Washington on a mission to do what?
To find the French in their forts and make them leave the ORV
What did the iroquois headman believe killing the french leader would do for the iroquois?
bring them closer to the english
Why did Washington feel like he HAD to build Fort Necessity?
b/c since indian allies killed the french leader, he knew the french would soon rebel/riot.
How did the French killing 1/3 of his men & being forced to surrender effect Washington's rep, ESPECIALLY in Virginia?
soared, he became a hero b/c he survived
Why was Washington's double fiasco in the Ohio Valley important?
it launched the beginning of the French & Indian war
WHY did British forces call for an inter-colonial conference? (2 reasons)
they wanted colonial leaders to come up with a plan of defense, & they wanted colonial leaders to come up with a formal alliance with the indians
Whose side did the Iroquois Confederacy take during the French & Indian war?
Nobodys. They remained neutral
What role did Ben Franklin take on the intercolonial conference?
he wrote up a plan of common defense
What was Franklins plan to pay for these new, proposed programs?
that a new central government would collect taxes to all 13 colonies
Why did colonial governments reject Franklin's new plan?
they didn't like the idea of a central government who could raise taxes & create laws
* Colonial governments didn't like the idea of a _______ gov who could ______ and _______:
central, raise, create
Why did the English not like Franklin's proposal of the Albany Plan of Union?
it hinted way too much independence
What was the main goal of the Albany Plan of Union?
to place the British North American colonies under a more centralized government
Why was the Albany Plan of Union significant?
it showed that the colonies were way too jealous of each other to even defend one another
Why didn't virginia send any delegates to the Albany conference?
they had no interest in cooperating with any of the other colonies
* who was the commander in chief for the 13 colonies @ the start of the french & indian war?
How did Braddock try to achieve his mission of kicking the French out of fort dequesne & the ORV in general?
sneaking through trees with his men / tried to plan a sneak attack
Why did Washington surviving Braddock's Expedition make him more famous?
he got surviving troops back to safety
2 reasons why Braddocks defeat was significant:
easy victory for french & indian allies convinced other indians that the British couldn't fight, and frontier=open war.
The easy victory for the French & Indian allies convinced other indians of what?
that the british couldn't fight
What was a big problem for the English during the French & Indian war?
the colonial governments weren't cooperating with the british for fresh troops
What was the first major element to William Pitt's new war strategy involving England?
to allow england's allies to focus it's war on Europe & keep it there
What was William Pitt's 2nd major element of his new war strategy?
to treat all American colonies as equal allies
After Pitt came up with new war strategies, what did many American colonists decide to do?
sign up to help the British fight the French
After Pitt came up with 2 new war strategies, why did many American colonists now decide to sign up to help the British fight the French?
they were being treated equally, unlike before.
Meantime, while Pitt is trying to better his war strategies, what was the strategy of the French? (what were the french doing?)
the French were leaving it's military leaders without supplies
What 2 things helped France & it's allies dominate the French & Indian war during it's first 2 years?
good organization & strategy
By 1758, where did William Pitt's new strategy make a difference?
the British troops began seizing more area of the Ohio River Valley
Where did George Washington spend the remainder of the French & Indian War?
his home down in Virginia
What was George Washington's job during the remainder of the french & indian war while he was home in virginia?
he was the commanding officer of virginia militia
What happened to both commanders of the British & French forces during the battle of quebec?
they were both shot & killed
How did General Wolfe achieve his everlasting fame during the battle of quebec?
he snuck his army up the ravine (risky)
What was the name of the treaty signed at the end of the French & Indian war? & What year?
Treaty of Paris - 1763