a Russian member of the liberal minority group that advocated gradual reform to socialism and opposed the Bolsheviks before and during the Russian Revolution
A member of the left-wing majority group of the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party that adopted Lenin's theses on party organization in 1903. Soviet communists
an agrarian party founded by various Populist groups in 1901. Its program, adopted in 1906, called for the overthrow of the autocracy, the establishment of a classless society, self-determination for national minorities, and socialization of the land, which was to be distributed among the peasants on the basis of need. Originally made up of students and intellectuals, the party later gained support from the peasantry.
Cabinet of new Soviet Government, formed in October 1917, Council of People's Commissars. All 14 members Bolsheviks
An advocate of the principles of monarchy. Wanted the Tsar back in power
Congress of Soviets
Gave Bolshevik regime a legitimate democratic basis until elections could be held
Decree on Peace
Immediate peace between Russia and Germany based on the promise of no annexation and no indemnity
Decree on Land
Confiscated all privately-owned land on behalf of the state. 540 million acres of land taken. In line with Marxist theory, socialism
Decree on Work
8 hour day, system of social insurance to cover old age, sickness, unemployment etc.
Decree on Banking
nationalised all banks
Decree on Marriage
became a civil, not religious ceremony. Status of women improved - divorce easier and equal legal and labour status to men
Lenin's proposal. Government would exercise tight control over key industries, there would be trade monopoly and monetary control would be through a single centralised banking sector
Organisation set up in December 1917 to coordinate economic activity.
Bolsheviks knew it had to be made even though they didn't have the votes. 21 million votes for SRs, 9 million for Bolsheviks. On Jan 5th 1918, dissolved by order of Sovnarkom. Bolshevik troops blocked access. Lenin claimed it was an instrument of the bourgeoisie. Red Guards shot more than 100 people
Security force of Soviet regime. Created Dec 1917. initially to control the outbreak of banditry, looting and raiding of liquor stores, but soon assumed the role of a security police dealing with anti-regime conspiracies. Lead by Dzerzhinsky
The Military Revolutionary Committee. Military organs under the soviets during the period of the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War. The most notable ones were those of the Petrograd Soviet, the Moscow Soviet, and at Stavka.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Armistice between Russia and Germany. Signed in December 1917. Trotsky delayed the final settlement, hoping for a German proletariat uprising. Russia lost 1/4 of territory, 1/3 of populations, 1/2 industry, 4/5 coalmines. reparations of 6 billion marks to be paid to Germany. Economic blow and political humiliation. Renounced the treaty on 13 Nov 1918, regained much of the lost territory.
anti-Bolshevik forces including: SRs, Mensheviks, Kadets, several generals and loyal supporters of the Tsar. Monarchist and loyalist movements. Also foreign countries. Only common factor was hatred of Reds
40,000 soldiers wanted to return to Europe to fight with allies. Given permission to cross Russia. Held up on railway, Bolsheviks wanted them to join them, went to whites instead.
SR led government, in Samara on Volga River. Aided by Czech legion
Wanted White victory. Britain, France, Czechoslovakia, America, Japan. Not unified
Siberian forces. Took over from the Komuch. controlled lots of land and had some significant victories over red army
Poles were not satisfied with terms of peace treaties which determined eastern frontier. Took advantage of chaos in Russia. April 1920, Poland invaded Ukraine. Poles won, with help from France. Peace treaty signed at Riga in 1921. Russians felt humiliated
campaign of intimidation, arrests, violence and executions, conducted by the Checka and the Red Army across Russia during the Civil War. Casualties in 1918 exceeded 10,000. Decree allowed for creation of concentration camps to imprison "class enemies"
policies adopted during initial period of communist rule from about mid-1918. ensured that red army was supplied with munitions and fed. Decree of Nationalism (June 1918) established strong centralised control over areas of production and distribution. some see it as a means of making civil war
Features of war Communism
1. militarisation of the workplace
2. grain requisitioning
3. money-less economy
4. state supplied services
effects of war communism
between 7.5 and 10 million russians died during civil war. famine and disease, black market, unemployment