The Solar System

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The largest planets also have the largest densities

False

The total mass of all the planets is much less than the mass of the Sun.

True

Asteroids, meteoroids, and comets are remnants of the early solar system

True

If we were to construct an accurate scale model of the solar system on a football field with the Sun at one end and Neptune at the other, the planet closest to the center of the field would be

Uranus

In the leading theory of solar system formation, the planets

formed from the same flattened, swirling gas cloud that formed the Sun.

The solar system is differentiated because

only rocky and metallic particles could form close to the Sun

According to the chart in Discovery 4-1 in the textbook, an impact resulting in global catastrophe is expected to occur roughly once per

million years

Which of the following are the Jovian planets?

Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune only

Which planet by itself contains the majority of mass of all the planets?

Jupiter

Planetary orbits

are almost circular, with low eccentricities

Which of the following is not icy in composition?

asteroids

In terms of ________, all the terrestrials are greater than any of the jovians

denisty

The jovian planets

all have rings around their equators.

All the planets orbit the Sun in the ________ plane

ecliptic

The Kuiper Belt is found where in the solar system?

beyond the orbit of Neptune

The tail of a comet always points

away from the Sun and becomes longest and brightest at perihelion

The Oort Cloud is believed to be

a spherical cloud of cometary nuclei far beyond the Kuiper Belt

Which of the following have an icy composition?

comets

The most distant objects in our solar system are

in the Oort Cloud.

The most detailed look we've had of an asteroid comes from

spacecraft sent to an asteroid

A meteorite is

a chunk of space debris that has struck the ground

The orbits of most comets

lie almost entirely beyond the orbit of Neptune.

Objects in the Kuiper belt

lie beyond the orbit of Neptune, and close to the ecliptic.

In terms of composition

the jovian planets are more like the Sun than are the terrestrials

As the solar nebula contracts it

spins faster due to conservation of angular momentum

According to the Solar Nebula theory, planets

should be a common result of star formation

As a rotating gas cloud contracts, it spins

faster due to conservation of angular momentum

So far, beyond the solar system the extrasolar planets found have been mostly

large jovians with terrestrial-type orbits.

Most of the extrasolar planets found so far were detected by

noting the Doppler shifts of the star as the planet orbits it from side to side

Which statement about extrasolar planets found to date is true?

Some are so close to their stars that their periods are just a few days

All the terrestrial planets lie inside the asteroid belt.

True

One characteristic of the Terrestrial planets is their extensive moon systems

False

Earth is nearly twice as large as Venus

False

All Jovian planets have rings around their equators and at least eight moons

True

Due to their great masses, all four Jovian worlds are much denser than the earth.

False

Comets are not actually members of the solar system, but captured by the Sun

False

In addition to revolving around the Sun counter clockwise, most planets also rotate on their axis counter clockwise

True

Astronomers have not yet been able to detect planets outside our solar system

False

Relative to the comet, the direction of the ion tail tells us

the direction of the Sun

Meteor showers are

caused by the Earth passing near the orbit of an old short-period comet and usually annual events, as the orbits again intersect

A meteor is

a streak of light in the atmosphere.

Long-period comets are believed to originally come from

the Oort cloud.

All the planets revolve around the Sun counter clockwise, except for Venus and Uranus.

False

All the planets' orbits are even spaced.

False

Pluto is more similar to the jovian planet's icy moons than to any of the other planets

True

A Kuiper Belt object was recently discovered that may be larger than Pluto

True

Barringer Crater in Arizona is an example of a meteorite impact

True

The Oort Cloud lies closer to the Sun than the Kuiper Belt

False

Some meteorites are believed to have come from Mars and the Moon.

True

As a rotating gas cloud contracts, it spins faster

True

We would expect other planets beyond our own solar system to orbit the equators of their home stars, as our own planets orbit the Sun.

True

The nucleus of a comet is typically

a few kilometers in size, and very low in density

The Manicouagan reservoir near Quebec is an example of

a large meteorite impact.

Characteristics of terresterial planets

small size, solid rocky surface, located within the inner solar system

Characteristics of jovian planets

low average density, extensive ring system, numerous orbiting moons, primarily composed of hydrogen, helium, and hydrogen compounds

The length of the tail of a comet depends primarily on

the distance of the comet from the Sun

Comet tails are _________when the comet is closer to the Sun

longer

Comet tails are ______________ when farther from the sun

shorter (or nonexistent)

About a trillion comets are thought to be located far, far beyond Pluto in the______

Oort Cloud

The bright spherical part of a comet observed when it is close to the sun is

coma

A comets ________stretches directly away from the sun

Plasma tail

A comet's ______if the frozen part of the comet.

nucleus

Particles ejected from a comet can cause a ___________on Earth

Meteror shower

________extends from about beyond the orbit of Neptune to about twice the distance of Neptune from the sun.

The Kuiper Belt

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