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Great Study Guide for Honors World History 1 with Duggins

Apprentice

A worker for a master who learns under him

Babylonian Captivity

Years that popes lived in Avignon during 1309-1377

Barter Economy

Goods and services exchanged for other goods and services without the use of money

Black Death

Plague that spread throughout Europe in 1347-1351

Capital

Wealth that is earned, saved, and invested to make profits

Craft Guilds

Skilled workers came together in these for development of a certain product

Crusades

Series of military expeditions to regain Holy Land

Dante Alighieri (Dante)

Italian poet who wrote The Divine Comedy

Domestic System

Manufacturing that took place in homes rather than a workplace

Edward III and Philip VI

After France's Capetian line died out, these two men both tried to take over the throne

Ferdinand and Isabella

Spain became a nation in 1479 under these two

First Crusade

Date 1096-1099, Crusaders captured Jerusalem from Turks

First Estate

Estate of France that held clergy

Freedom, Exemption, Town Justice, Commercial Priveliges

The rights given to townspeople (specific)

Geoffrey Chaucer

English poet who wrote The Canterbury Tales

Gothic

Type of church design that developed in the mid-1100's and stood to heaven

Great Schism

The church began to split into different rulers and opposing groups

Habsburg

Important family that was not too powerful but used marriage to gain control and power in Europe

Hanseatic League

League of trade cities in Germany which helped regulate trade

Henry Tudor

House of Lancaster man who claimed English throne in 1485 and defeated King Richard III

House Of Commons

Part of English parliament which gained power after the Hundred Years War

Hundred Years War

War that erupted when English king Edward III held land in France that made him a vassal to the French King

Innocent III

Strong pope from 1198-1216

Jan Hus

Criticized church, was excomunicated and killed

Joan Of Arc

Helped Charles VII to be crowned king of France, was burned at stake

John Wycliffe

Priest and teacher who attacked church

Journeyman

A skilled worker who was paid wages by a master

King Philip IV of France

Ordered that clergy should pay taxes in France

Louis XI

Followed Charles VII as king of France, helped strengthen monarchy

Market Economy

Land, Labor, and Capital are all controlled by individual persons

Merchant guild

Merchants and workers began to associate into units

Merchants and Master Workers

Made up the majority of the middle class

Peter Abelard

Philosopher of scholasticism, wrote "Sic et Non"

Pope Boniface VIII

In 1302, decreed that popes were the only ones with power which went against Philip IV

Pope Urban II

Pope that called for a Christian Crusade against the forces of Islam in 1095 c.e.

Saladin

Muslim leader in the 3rd Crusade

Scholasticism

Attempt to bring faith and reason together

Second Crusade

1147-1149, Crusaders head back to Europe defeated and ashamed

Second Estate

Estate of France that held Nobles

Seljuk Turks

Muslim people from Central Asia, gained land in Palestine

Third Estate

Estate of France that held common people

Thomas Aquinas

Monk who wrote "Summa Theologiae"

Three archbishops and four German Princes

Emperor Charles IV of the Holy Roman Empire ruled that these electors would choose the emperor

Troubadours

Traveling singers who wrote poems about love and chivalry

Usury

Charging interest on loans, the Church did not allow this practice

Vernacular Languages

Everyday speech that varied but very common

War Of The Roses

War between the York and Lancaster families in 1455

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