ART History study guide Exam 2 (Greek and Roman art)

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Krater

an ancient Greek wide-mouthed bowl for mixing wine and water

Kouros

An archaic Greek standing statue of a naked male.

Arete

in early Greece, the qualities of excellence that a hero strives to win in a struggle or contest

Kore

an Archaic Greek statue of a standing, draped female

Canon

a rule or especially body of rules or principles generally established as valid and fundamental in a field or art or philosophy

Pudica

one hand covering female areas; modest Venus pose

Mosaic

art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass

Foreshortening

The use of perspective to represent in art the apparent visual contraction of an object that extends back in space at an angle to the perpendicular plane of sight.

Geometric Period

900-700 BCE, a phase in greek art known for its geometric motifs in vase painting

Orientalizing Period

700-600 BCE, During this period, the Greeks began incorporating exotic motifs into their native art, perhaps to cater to the aesthetics to the east.

Archaic Period

the period of Greek art from 900 to 500 BC. It was the earliest period of great vase painting and the beginning of monumental stone sculpture

Classical Period

480-320 BC, "middle" period of ancient Greek civilization, began around 480 BCE to 350 BCE; emphasizes rational order, balance, harmony, restraint, art of ancient Greece and Rome for models.

Hellenistic Period

323-31 BCE, time where Greek art and culture merge with influences from the Middle East; culture associated with the spread of Greek influence as a result of Macedonian conquests

Stylobate

The uppermost course of the platform of a Greek temple, which supports the columns.

Stereobate

In Greek architecture, the stepped base on which a temple stands.

Entablature

(architecture) the structure consisting of the part of a classical temple above the columns between a capital and the roof

Triglyphs

was an element of the Doric frieze separating two consecutive metopes and divided into three sections

Architrave

the bottom element in an entablature, beneath the frieze and the cornice

metope

The carved or painted rectangular panel between the triglyphs of a Doric frieze

cornice

The uppermost, projecting portion of an entablature, also the crowning

Doric Order

characterized by unadorned capitals, columns without bases, and a frieze of triglyphs and metopes

Ionic Order

characterized by volutes (spiral, scroll-like form), capitals, columns with bases, uninterrupted frieze, base

Corinthian Order

The last and most ornate of the Greek orders (very similar to the Ionic order)- contains a base, a fluted column shaft, and the capital is elaborate and decorated with leaf carvings (Usually Acanthus)

Entasis

swelling on vertical columns to counteract optical illusion of concavity.

Tumulus

burial mound; in Etruscan architecture, tumuli cover one or more subterranean multichambered tombs cut out of the local tufa

Sarcophagus

an ancient marble or stone coffin, often decorated with artwork and inscriptions

Cista

An Etruscan cylindrical container made of sheet bronze with cast handles and feet, often with elaborately engraved bodies, used for women's toilet articles.

Verism

often used by the Romans in marble sculptures of heads. often described as "warts and all", shows the imperfections of the subject, such as warts, wrinkles and furrows.

Engaged Columns

a column embedded in a wall and partly projecting from the surface of the wall

Forum

public square of an ancient Roman city; public place for open discussion; court of law

Atrium

The court of a Roman house that is partly open to the sky. Also the open, colonnaded court in front of and attached to a Christian basilica.

Peristyle Garden

Open colonnaded court with a garden and pool found in ancient Roman homes.

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