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Combination of EMT 100 Sections

the process of binding or sticking to a surface is called


metered does inhaler does what?

delivers the same amount of medication every time

When administering or assisting in the administration of medication, it is important that you follow six steps. Before beginning, you must

obtain an order from medical direction


causes stimulation of receptors


binds to receptors to block other medications

the 6 rights

1)right patient
2)right medication
3)right dose
4)right route
5)right time
6)right documentation


inhibits platelet aggregation

only give activated charcoal to

someone with no altered LOC

most common drug given by EMT


Adam's apple

see thyroid cartilage

agonal respiration

gasping type respirations that have no pattern and occur very infrequently; a sign of impending cardiac or respiratory arrest. Also called atonal breathing.

alveolar ventilation

the amount of inspired air that reaches the alveoli of the lungs.


small air sacs in the lungs that fill with air on inspirations and are the point of gas exchange with the pulmonary capillaries

automatic transport ventilator (ATV)

a positive pressure ventilation device that delivers ventilations automatically

bag-valve-mask devise (BVM)

a positive pressure ventilation device that consist of a bag with non-rebreather valve and a mask. The bag-valve device is connected to the mask or other airway. The bag is squeezed to deliver a ventilation to the patient


on both sides.


a breathing rate that is slower than the normal rate.


branches of the respiratory tract from the trachea into the lungs. Singular bronchus


smaller branches of the bronchi. They continue to branch and get smaller, eventually leading into alveolar sacs.


the point at which the trachea splits into the right and left mainstreams bronchi.


sense organs within the body, such as carotid and aortic bodies, that are sensitive to chemical changes in the blood, especially to levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and that, in response, play a role in the regulation of respiration.

cricoid cartilage

the most inferior portion of the larynx and only full cartilaginous bring of the upper airway. It is felt immediately below the thyroid cartilage.

cricoid pressure

pressure applied to the cricoid cartilage to compress the esophagus. Also call the Sellick maneuver.


a sound similar to that of a cawing crow that indicates that the muscles around the larynx are in spasm and beginning to narrow the opening into the trachea


a bluish color of the skin and mucous membranes that indicates poor oxygenation of tissue.

dead air space

inspired air that fills the respiratory tract but never reaches the alveoli of the lungs.


containing low amounts of oxygen, as with venous blood.


the major muscles of respiration that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. (makes up 60% - 70% Oxygen intake)


a small flap of cartilaginous tissue that acts as a valve and closes over the trachea during swallowing.


a tubular structure that serves as a passageway for food and liquids to enter the stomach.


the passive process of breathing air out of the lungs.
Also called expiration.


the passive process of breathing air our of the lungs. Also called exhalation

flow-restricted, oxygen-powered ventilation device (FROPVD)

a device that consists of ventilation valve and trigger or button and is driven directly by oxygen. It is used to provide positive pressure ventilation.

French catheter

see soft catheter.

gastric distention

inflation of the stomach.


a gargling sound that indicates a fluid in the mouth or pharynx

hard catheter

see rigid catheter

head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver

a manual technique used to open the airway. The head is tilted back by one hand. The tips of the fingers of the other hand are placed under the chin and used to lift it up and forward.


a complex protein molecule found on the surface of the red blood cell that is responsible for carrying a majority oxygen in the blood.

high-pressure regulator

a one-gauge regulator that is used to power the flow restricted, oxygen powered ventilation device. The flow rate cannot be adjusted.


the insufficient supply of oxygen and other nutrients to some the body's cells that result from inadequate circulation of blood. Also called shock.


in adequate tidal volume in a breathing patient.


a reduction of oxygen delivery to the tissues


the active process of breathing air into the lungs. Also called inspiration

intercostal muscles

the muscles between the ribs.
(make up 30% - 40% of Oxygen intake)

jaw-thrust maneuver

a manual technique used to open the airway in the patient with a suspected spinal injury. The fingers are place at the angles of the jaw and used to life the jaw up and forward


a surgical procedure in which a patient's larynx is removed. A stoma is crates for the patient to breathe through.


the part of the air passage that connects the pharynx with the trachea. Also, it is considered the orang of the voice since it contains the vocal cords.

lower airway

the portion of the reparatory system that extends from the trachea to the alveoli of the lungs

minute volume

the amount of air breathed in and out in one minute. Also called minute ventilation.

Minute volume (MV) = Respiratory Rate (f)
X Tidal Volume (Vt)

Minute volume = (12) breaths per minute x (500) ml per breath

Minute volume = 6,000 ml or 6 liters

mucous membrane

a thin layer of tissue that lines various structures within the body

nasal airway

a nasopharyngeal airway

nasal cannula

an oxygen delivery device that consists of two prongs that are inserted into the nose of the patient. The oxygen concentration delivered is from 22% - 44%.

nasopharyngeal airway (NPA)

a curved, hollow rubber tube with a flange or flare at the top end and a bevel at the distal end that is inserted into the nose. It fits in the nasopharynx and extends into the pharynx providing a passage for air.


the portion of the pharynx that extends from the nostrils to the soft palate.

non-rebreather mask

an oxygen delivery device that consists of an reservoir and one-way valve. it can deliver up to 100% oxygen to the patient

oral airway

an oropharyngeal airway.

oropharyngeal airway (OPA)

a semicircular hard plastic device that is inserted in to the mouth and holds the tongue away from the back of the pharynx.


a portion of the pharynx that extends from the mouth to the oral cavity at the base of the tongue

oxygen humidifier

a container that is filled with sterile water and connected to the oxygen regulator to add moisture to the dry oxygen prior to being delivered to the patient.


containing high amounts of oxygen, as with arterial blood.


the process by which the blood and the cells become saturated with oxygen.

parietal pleura

the outermost pleural layer that adheres to the chest wall.

patent airway

an airway that is open and clear of any obstructions.


the common passageway fro the reparatory and digestive tract; the throat.


two layers of connective tissue that surround the lung.

pleural space

a small space between the visceral and parietal pleura that is at negative pressure and filled with serous fluid.

pocket mask

a plastic mask placed over the patient's nose and mouth through which ventilations can be delivered.

positive pressure ventilation (PPV)

method of aiding patient whose breathing is inadequate by forcing air into lungs.


the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide the takes place during inhalation and exhalation

respiratory arrest

complete stoppage of breathing.

respiratory distress

a condition in which a person is working harder than normally to breathe. Also called breathing difficulty.

respiratory rate

the number of breaths taken in one mine. Also called frequency.


depressions seen in the neck, above the clavicles, between the ribs, or below the rib cage from excessive muscle use during breathing. It is an indication of respiratory distress.

regid catheter

a rigid plastic tubes that is part of a suctioning system, commonly referred to as the (tonsil tips) or (tonsil sucker).

Sellick maneuver

see cricoid pressure.

serous fluid

fluid that acts as a lubricant to reduce to reduce the friction between the parietal and visceral pleura


see hypoperfusion


a sound that is heard when the base of the tone or relaxed tissues in the pharynx partially block the upper airway; also called (sonorous sound).

soft catheter

flexible tubing that is part of a suctioning system, also called a (French catheter).


a surgical opening into the neck hand trachea; see also tracheotomy.


a harsh, high-pitched sound heard on inspiration that indicates swelling of larynx.


a breathing rate that is faster than the normal rate.

therapy regulator

a device that controls the flow and pressure of oxygen from the tank to allow for a consistent ant delivery of oxygen by liters per minute.

thyroid cartilage

the bulky cartilage that forms the anterior portion of the larynx; see Adam's apple

tidal volumes

the amount of air breathed in and out in one normal respiration

tonsil tip or tonsil sucker

see rigid catheter


a tubular structure that serves as the passageway for air to enter into the lungs; the windpipe.


a surgical opening into the trachea in which a tube in inserted for the patient to breathe through; see also stoma

tracheostomy tube

a hollow tube that is inserted into a tracheostomy to allow fro the patient to breathe.

upper airway

the portion of the respiratory system that extends from the nose and mouth to the larynx.


the passage of air into and out of the lungs

visceral pleura

innermost layer of the pleura that cores the lungs.

What carries oxygenated blood to baby

Umbilical veins

What does placenta do

Transfer oxygen/nutrient from mother to child

What carries deoxygenated blood from the baby

Umbilical arteries

What does the amniotic sign do

Holds 500 to 1000 mL of water which helps to insulate and protect the fetus

How long till the uterus gets to the level of the umbilicus

20 weeks, so there is decreased respir rates and decreased minute volume

Pregnant patients heart rate can increase by


Pregnant patients blood volume can increase by


3 stages of labor

Dilation of cervix
Delivery of infant
Delivery of placenta

Decent called lightening is what

When the infant moves into the pelvis; also makes it easier for mother to breath

What stage begins at childbirth


Preeclampsia develops after what time period

After 30th week of gestation

What is supine hypertensive syndrome

Compression of descending aorta or inferior vena cava

Leading cause of death in first trimester

Internal hemorrhage following rupture of ectopic pregnancy

term for a pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, most often in a fallopian tube

ectopic pregnancy

Location and quality of pain from ectopic pregnancy

Sudden stabbing and unilateral pain in the lower abdomen

The placenta prematurely separates from the uterus wall

Abruptio placenta

Term for placenta developing over and covering the cervix

Placenta previa

Three biggest cause of bleeding in pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy
Abrupto pregnancy
Placenta previa

Can a pregnant women withstand significant blood loss

You bet bud

Possible injury from pregnant women in car crash with vaginal bleeding

Placenta abruptio

Does CPR or abdominal thrusts change for pregnant women

CPR no
Abdominal thrusts above the belly

Green fluid in the broken water is what


Aspirate nose or mouth first

Mouth in both adult and child

How to calculate gestation period

First day of last menstral period

Term for women experiencing her first pregnancy


Term for a women who has experienced previous pregnancies


Patient position (Pregnant)

Elevate hips two to four inches

First stage of pregnancy

Begins with onset of contractions when the fetus enters the birth canal and ends when the cervix is fully dilated

Second stage of pregnancy

Begins when fetus enters the birth canal and ends when the infant is born

Third stage of pregnancy

Begins with the birth of the infant and ends with the delivery of the placenta

What to do if you see umbilical cord around neck during birth

First, attempt to remove with finger
If that fails, then clamp and cut

What level to keep neonate at after pregnancy

The level of the birth canal until the umbilical cord is cut

Three emergency situations with placenta

-More than 30 minutes elapsed and the placenta has not birthed
-More than 500 mL of blseconds enforce delivery of placenta
- There is significant bleeding after delivery of placenta

Time for child to take a breathe after birth

15 to 30 seconds

Term for spinal cord or meninges protruding outside of vertebrae and possibly outside the body

Spina bifida

During multiple gestation what are time periods

Contractions for second begin about 10 min
Second child born aprox within 45 min

Two characteristics of premature birth

Absence of vernix
Proportionally larger head

How to help stop bleeding after birth

Massage abdomen (Fundus Massage)
Also suggest breast feeding

When does ovulation usually occur

Two wks prior to menstrations

Normal pregnancy duration

40 weeks

Muscle used for child birth


Bloody show

when the mucous plug at the uterine/cervix opening discharges into the vagina as a pink-tinged mucus

Placenta does not allow

Intermixing of blood between mom and child

First stage of labor usually lasts

16 hrs in Primagravida patient

When is preeclampsia possible

Before 20 weeks

Three ways to treat gestational diabetetes

Diet, exercise, insulin

Where should two EMTs locate when assisting a pregnant patient

One at the head and one at the feet

What to do when head comes out

One finger in to feel for umbilical cord

how to reduce chance of precipitous birth and tearing of the peritoneum

One finger in peritoneum and gentle pressure on the baby's head to keep it from tearing

What to do if child does not start breathing

Tactical stimulate and flip over

Newborn heart rate

120 beats per minute

What to do with limb presentation

Take to hospital

when the umbilical cord is wrapped around the infants neck

nuchal cord

Key thing to do with twins

Label and time document

Possible problems with substance abuse mother

Low birth wt
Respiratory distress

How to deliver dead baby

Deliver as usual

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